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HIV testing experiences and their implications for patient engagement with HIV care and treatment on the eve of ‘test and treat’: findings from a multicountry qualitative study
  1. Alison Wringe1,
  2. Mosa Moshabela2,3,
  3. Constance Nyamukapa4,
  4. Dominic Bukenya5,
  5. Ken Ondenge6,
  6. William Ddaaki7,
  7. Joyce Wamoyi8,
  8. Janet Seeley3,5,9,
  9. Kathryn Church1,
  10. Basia Zaba1,
  11. Victoria Hosegood3,10,
  12. Oliver Bonnington1,
  13. Morten Skovdal11,12,
  14. Jenny Renju1,13
  1. 1 Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
  2. 2 University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa
  3. 3 African Health Research Institute, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
  4. 4 Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe
  5. 5 Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute Research Unit on AIDS, Entebbe, Uganda
  6. 6 Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
  7. 7 Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda
  8. 8 National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania
  9. 9 Department of Global Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
  10. 10 Department of Social Statistics and Demography, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
  11. 11 University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  12. 12 Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe
  13. 13 Malawi Epidemiology and Intervention Research Unit, Karonga, Malawi
  1. Correspondence to Dr Alison Wringe, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK; alison.wringe{at}


Objective In view of expanding ‘test and treat’ initiatives, we sought to elicit how the experience of HIV testing influenced subsequent engagement in HIV care among people diagnosed with HIV.

Methods As part of a multisite qualitative study, we conducted in-depth interviews in Uganda, South Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe with 5–10 health workers and 28–59 people living with HIV, per country. Topic guides covered patient and provider experiences of HIV testing and treatment services. Themes were derived through deductive and inductive coding.

Results Various practices and techniques were employed by health workers to increase HIV testing uptake in line with national policies, some of which affected patients’ subsequent engagement with HIV services. Provider-initiated testing was generally appreciated, but rarely considered voluntary, with instances of coercion and testing without consent, which could lead to disengagement from care.

Conflicting rationalities for HIV testing between health workers and their clients caused tensions that undermined engagement in HIV care among people living with HIV. Although many health workers helped clients to accept their diagnosis and engage in care, some delivered static, morally charged messages regarding sexual behaviours and expectations of clinic use which discouraged future care seeking. Repeat testing was commonly reported, reflecting patients’ doubts over the accuracy of prior results and beliefs that antiretroviral therapy may cure HIV. Repeat testing provided an opportunity to develop familiarity with clinical procedures, address concerns about HIV services and build trust with health workers.

Conclusion The principles of consent and confidentiality that should underlie HIV testing and counselling practices may be modified or omitted by health workers to achieve perceived public health benefits and policy expectations. While such actions can increase HIV testing rates, they may also jeopardise efforts to connect people diagnosed with HIV to long-term care, and undermine the potential of test and treat interventions.

  • HIV testing
  • Africa
  • qualitative research
  • adherence
  • biopolitics
  • governmentality

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See:

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  • Contributors All authors contributed to the development of The Bottlenecks Study protocol (PI: AW). CN, JW, MM, WD, KO, DB supervised the data collection by trained research assistants and prepared detailed site reports. AW conducted the analysis and prepared the first draft of this manuscript. JR, JS, MM, MS, OB made significant contributions to the manuscript and revised it for intellectual content. All authors have read and commented on the manuscript. All authors have approved the final manuscript and act as guarantors of the paper.

  • Funding The Bottlenecks Study was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1082114). This paper was also made possible with the support of The Wellcome Trust (085477/Z/08/Z). Research (undertaken in Kisesa and) reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), in accordance with the regulatory requirements of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number U01AI069911East Africa IeDEA Consortium. AW is funded by a Population Health Scientist award, jointly funded by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) under the MRC/DFID Concordat agreement and is also part of the EDCTP2 programme supported by the European Union.

  • Disclaimer The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval Ethical approval was granted by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the relevant ethics boards at each of the study settings. These were: Malawi National Health Sciences Research Committee #15/5/1427 (Karonga); Medical Research Coordination Committee is MR/53/100/370 (Kisesa); Uganda National Council for Science and technology (UNCST)- HS1857 (Kyamulibwa), Office of the President ADM154/212/01 (Rakai); Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) Scientific and Ethics Review Unit (SERU) KEMRI/SERU/CGHR/018/3115 (Kisumu); Medical Research Council of Zimbabwe MRCZ/A/1990 (Manicaland) and University of KwaZulu Natal (UKZN) UKZN/BE338/15 (uMkhanyakude). Informed and written consent was obtained from all participants.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement Permission to access the data can be requested from the first author for consideration.

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