Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Original article
Economic burden of HIV and TB/HIV coinfection in a middle-income country: a costing analysis alongside a pragmatic clinical trial in Brazil


Objective The objective of this study was to measure the costs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) as well as active tuberculosis (TB/HIV), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI/HIV) or without TB (HIV/AIDS).

Methods We analysed the costs through the entire pathway of care during the prediagnosis and treatment periods from the Brazilian public health system perspective. We applied a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches to capture and estimate direct medical and non-medical costs. We measured the mean cost per patient per type of care (inpatient, outpatient and emergency care) and disease category (HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS death, TB/HIV, TB/HIV death and LTBI/HIV).

Results Between March 2014 and March 2016 we recruited 239 PLHIV. During the follow-up 26 patients were diagnosed and treated for TB and 5 received chemoprophylaxis for LTBI. During the prediagnosis and treatment period, the mean total costs for HIV or AIDS and AIDS death categories were US$1558 and US$2828, respectively. The mean total costs for TB/HIV and TB/HIV death categories were US$5289.0 and US$8281, respectively. The mean total cost for the LTBI/HIV category was US$882.

Conclusions Patients with TB/HIV impose a higher economic burden on the health system than HIV/AIDS and LTBI/HIV. Patients with LTBI/HIV were the lowest cost group among all disease categories, indicating that preventive TB treatment can avoid the further costs treating active TB.

Trial registration number RBR-22t943, Results.

  • aids
  • economic analysis
  • tuberculosis

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.