Background An observational study was conducted to assess recreational drug use in association with recent STIs among clients of an STI/HIV reference centre in Rome, Italy.
Methods Attendees self-compiled a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviours and drug use, including the nine drugs used for sex (amphetamines, poppers, cocaine, ketamine, erectile dysfunction agent (EDA), steroids and the three chemsex drugs, ie, chems: γ-hydroxybutyric acid/γ-butyrolactone, crystal and Mcat).
Results Overall, 703 patients participated, with men who have sex with men (MSM) accounting for 50.4% of the total and 73.2% of HIV-positive patients. Apart from condylomatosis, whose prevalence was higher among females (38.8%) and non-MSM (45.8%) than MSM (14.4%), STIs were more frequent among MSM, particularly syphilis (14.1%), gonorrhoea (4.8%), urethritis (3.4%) and hepatitis A (6.5%). Recreational drug use was significantly more frequent among MSM (39.8% vs 17.6% in females and 22.7% in non-MSM). A total of 26.3% of MSM used at least one of the nine drugs and 5.1% at least one of the three chems. Cocaine (13.3%) and poppers (13.0%) were the most used sex drugs in MSM.
The use of any of the nine drugs was associated with being MSM (adjusted OR (AOR): 1.94, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.58), sex with partner contacted online (1.99, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.45), group sex (4.08, 95% CI 2.40 to 6.93) and STI in the last year (1.65, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.61). Use of any of the nine chems among MSM was associated with condomless sex (2.24, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.14), group sex (2.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 4.31) and STI diagnosis in the last year (4.08, 95% CI 2.32 to 7.19).
Conclusions Our data suggest that recreational drug use is quite common among MSM in Italy. No evidence of association with STI was found among non-MSM and females, where only cannabis and cocaine use was reported. The use of chems is still limited, but cocaine, poppers and EDA are widely used among MSM. Recreational drug use appears associated with high-risk sexual behaviours and a higher risk of STI.
- sexual behaviour
- substance misuse
- infectious diseases
- gay men
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Handling editor Tristan J Barber
Correction notice The article has been corrected since it published Online First. The institute name has been updated from 'San Gallicano Dermatologic Institute IRCCS' to 'San Gallicano Dermatological Institute IRCCS'.
Contributors Conception: AL and MZ. Design: AL and MZ. Supervision: AL, AC and AM. Patients: AL, MC, MF, LA and DO. Data collection/processing: AL, LA and MC. Analysis and interpretation: AL, MGD, MC and MZ. Literature review: AL, MGD, MZ and MG. Writing: AL and MZ. Critical review: MGD, LA, MC, DO, MF, MG, AM and AC.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The survey was approved by the ethics committee of the San Gallicano Dermatological Institute (CE 1048/18).
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.
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