Background It is estimated that the prevalence of anal HPV infection is 15%, 60% and 95% among heterosexual men, MSM who are HIV negative and HIV positive MSM, respectively. Such high prevalence of anal HPV infection among MSM is related to 44 times higher incidence of anal cancer. We conducted a study to measure the prevalence and determine risk factors associated with anal HPV among MSM in Bali, Indonesia using a GeneXpert® platform.
Methods Between July 2017 and July 2018, 253 MSM were recruited in 2 MSM clinics in Bali, Indonesia. Sociodemographic and sexual behavioral characteristics were collected anonymously via self-completed questionnaire using tablet. The anal swab specimen was then collected, and HPV was tested using GeneXpert®.
Results 174/242 (71.9%) participants have positive results for any types of anal HPV, of which 95 (54.60%) were among persons aged 20–29. The prevalence of high-risk HPV types (HPV 16 and HPV 18–45) was 109/242 (45%), while the low-risk HPV was 155/242 (64%). Age, relationship status, employment status, condom use, and sex position were factors associated with increased risks of contracting HPV, particularly high-risk HPV types. Young age between 20–29 accounted 5.05-fold (1.14–22.32, 95%CI) risks acquiring HPV type 16 compared to other age group. Those who were open to a relationship have 6 times (0.68–52.75, 95%CI) higher risks of anal HPV 16 as opposed to those who were married. MSM who were employee increased almost 5 times (0.65–38.43, 95% CI) risks of anal types of HPV 16.
Conclusion As the first study ever reported about the prevalence and risk factors of anal HPV infections among MSM in Indonesia, this study showed similar results and findings with other studies from other countries. Vaccination program can be considered to reduce the preponderant burden of anal HPV among MSM in Bali.
Disclosure No significant relationships.
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