Background The immunological mechanism of the vaccines acts systemically in order to prevent a specifically infection. Although HPV-antibodies levels have been studied in serum and cervicovaginal (CVC) samples of vaccinated women, the TH1/TH2 cytokines levels has not yet been adequately characterized. In our study, we investigated the effects of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®) on the serum and cervicovaginal microenvironment, characterizing the TH1/TH2 cytokines profile.
Methods A subset of 20 women between 18 and 40 years old without genital coinfections (bacterial vaginosis, Herpes virus, Candida sp Neisseira gonorrhea or Chlamydia trachomatis) were selected to receive the three doses of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®). Blood and cervicovaginal samples were collected before the first dose and 30 days after the third dose. TH1 (INF-γ, IL2, IL-12p70, TNF-α, GM-CSF) and TH2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) cytokines were determined by Immunology Multiplex.
Results In the blood samples there were no statistically significant differences in the level of cytokines before or after the three doses of the vaccine, except for TNF-α (INF-γ: p=0.797; IL2: p=0.735, IL-12p70: p=0.881; TNF-α: p=0.011, GM-CSF, p=0.721; IL-4, p=0.223; IL-5, p=0.860; IL-10, p=0.473; IL-13, p=0,913.). However, for the CVC samples, there was a tendency to decrease the cytokine level after the three doses of the vaccine. This decrease was significant for the INF-γ (p=0,010), IL-5, (p=0,005), IL-12p70 (p=0,002) e IL-13 (p=0,002).
Conclusion TH1/TH2 cytokines were detected in serum of women who received the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine, but there were no significant differences before and after the three doses. In the vaginal samples there was a significant decrease of INF-γ, IL-12p70, IL-5 and IL-13. Understanding the clinical significance of these modifications is a very relevant issue and future studies that address the network of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine effects should be considered.
Disclosure No significant relationships.
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