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Is Madagascar at the edge of a generalised HIV epidemic? Situational analysis
  1. Mihaja Raberahona1,
  2. François Monge2,
  3. Rijasoa Harivelo Andrianiaina3,
  4. Mamy Jean de Dieu Randria1,
  5. Andosoa Ratefiharimanana4,
  6. Rivo Andry Rakatoarivelo5,
  7. Lanto Randrianary6,
  8. Emma Randriamilahatra6,
  9. Liva Rakotobe6,
  10. Chiarella Mattern7,8,
  11. Volatiana Andriananja1,
  12. Hobimahanina Rajaonarison1,
  13. Mirella Randrianarisoa7,
  14. Elliott Rakotomanana7,
  15. Dolorès Pourette8,
  16. Hery Zo Andriamahenina2,
  17. Charlotte Dezé9,
  18. Narjis Boukli10,
  19. Laurence Baril7,
  20. Xavier Vallès7
  1. 1 Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Joseph Raseta Befelatanana, Antananarivo, Madagascar
  2. 2 Medecins du Monde France, Antananarivo, Madagascar
  3. 3 Comité National de Lutte contre le Sida, Government of Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar
  4. 4 Association Aide et Soins aux Malades, Antananarivo, Madagascar
  5. 5 Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Tambohobe Fianarantsoa, Antananarivo, Madagascar
  6. 6 Directorate for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Control, Government of Madagascar Ministry of Public Health, Antananarivo, Madagascar
  7. 7 Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar
  8. 8 CEPED, IRD, Université Paris Descartes, INSERM, Paris, France
  9. 9 Ambassade de France à Madagascar, Ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires Étrangères de France, Antananarivo, Madagascar
  10. 10 Virology, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France
  1. Correspondence to Mr Xavier Vallès, Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar; xavier_valles04{at}


Objectives To describe the epidemiological situation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and to identify the main drivers for vulnerability in Madagascar.

Design Literature review, qualitative research and situational analysis.

Data sources Search of electronic bibliographic databases, national repositories of documentation from 1998 to 2018. Search keywords included Madagascar, HIV, sexually transmitted infections, men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers (SWs), transactional sex (TS), injecting drug users (IDUs), vulnerability and sexual behaviour. Qualitative sources were interviews and focus group discussions.

Review methods Studies focused on HIV and/or vulnerability of HIV in Madagascar in general, and key populations (KPs) and HIV/AIDS response were taken into account. National reports from key HIV response actors were included.

Results Madagascar is characterised by a low HIV/AIDS epidemic profile in the general population (GP) (0.3%) combined with a high prevalence of HIV among KPs (SWs, MSM and IDUs).

An increase in HIV prevalence among KP has been observed during recent years. Hospital-based data suggest an increase in HIV prevalence among the GP. The vulnerability traits are inconsistent use of condoms, multipartner relationships and other contextual factors like widespread TS and gender inequality. A high prevalence/incidence of sexually transmitted infections could indicate a high vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. However, there are no reports of HIV prevalence of >1% in antenatal consultation.

Conclusion There is not enough evidence to make a conclusion about the HIV epidemiological situation in Madagascar due to the scarcity of the epidemiological data. However, Madagascar may be closer to a turning point towards a high-prevalence epidemic with severe consequences, particularly when taking into account its socioeconomical fragility and underlying vulnerabilities. More precise epidemiological data and improved HIV/AIDS diagnosis and case management should be a public health priority.

  • HIV
  • AIDS
  • Africa

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  • Handling editor Gwenda Hughes

  • Contributors All authors have contributed at last to the critical reading of the article, revision and contribution of additional information included in the article.

  • Funding This evaluation was carried out during the feasibility assessment of a community-based HIV/AIDS observatory project. This project is managed by the non-governmental organisation Médecins du Monde (France) and is funded by Expertise France (EF) (initiative 5%, reference number 16SANIN208). FDM, HZO, XV, CM, MR and ER were funded by EF.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval This study obtained the approval of the ethics committee of the Ministry of Public Health of Madagascar (number 088/MSANP/CERBM).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.