Objectives Azithromycin treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) may not be adequate to treat concomitant Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) infection, and particularly if MG has macrolide resistance-associated mutations (MG-MRAMs). We estimated prevalence of coinfections of CT with MG carrying MRAM, and risk factors for MG-MRAM among a sexual health clinic population.
Study design and setting Among symptomatic and STI-contact clinic attendees in London, prevalence of CT-MG coinfection and MG-MRAM were estimated using nucleic acid amplification testing and Sanger sequencing, respectively, and their associated risk factors analysed using logistic regression.
Results MG prevalence was 7.5% (23/307), 17.3% (30/173), and 11.4% (8/70) in females, men who have sex with women (MSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM), respectively; MG coinfection in CT-infected participants represented 28.0% (7/25), 13.5% (5/37), 0.0% (0/0), respectively. Presence of MG-MRAM was 39.1% (9/23) in female swabs, 70.0% (21/30) in MSW urine and 83.3% (5/6) in MSM rectal swabs. In multivariate analyses, coinfection with another STI was strongly associated with MG-MRAM (OR: 7.19; 95% CI: 2.4 to 21.5).
Conclusion A significant proportion of participants in our study of symptomatic patients and STI contacts were infected with macrolide-resistant MG, suggesting that testing for MG and MRAM, for MG positives, might be clinically useful. The findings also suggest services explore potential benefits of testing CT positive samples for MG in these patient groups. Where MG testing is not available, potential high rates of MG coinfection should be borne in mind when considering azithromycin in the treatment of CT among STI contacts and symptomatic patients.
- chlamydia infection
- M. genitalium
- antimicrobial resistance
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