Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the ANRS IPERGAY PrEP trial
  1. Julien Gras1,2,
  2. Marine Pillet3,
  3. Guillemette Antoni3,
  4. Eric Cua4,
  5. Isabelle Charreau3,
  6. F Raffi5,
  7. Christian Chidiac6,
  8. Julie Chas7,
  9. Cécile Tremblay8,
  10. Bruno Spire9,
  11. Constance Delaugerre2,10,
  12. Laurence Meyer3,
  13. Jean-Michel Molina1,2
  14. IPERGAY Study group
  1. 1 Infectious Diseases Department, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris, France
  2. 2 INSERM U944 « Biology of Emerging Viruses » team, Saint Louis Research Institute, Paris, France
  3. 3 SC10-US19, INSERM, Villejuif, France
  4. 4 Department of Infectious Diseases, CHU Nice, Nice, France
  5. 5 Infectious Diseases Department, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France
  6. 6 Infectious Diseases Department, University of Lyon, Lyon, France
  7. 7 Infectious Diseases Department, Tenon Hospital, Paris, France
  8. 8 Microbiology, Montreal Sacre-Coeur Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  9. 9 INSERM UMR 912 SESSTIM, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France
  10. 10 Virology Department, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris, France
  1. Correspondence to Dr Julien Gras, Infectious Diseases Department, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris 75010, France; julien.gras{at}


Objectives We aimed to assess among men who have sex with men (MSM) risk factors for HIV infection, to identify those who require urgent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prescription.

Methods All participants enrolled in the placebo arm of the ANRS IPERGAY trial, or infected between screening and day 0, were included. Baseline characteristics were described and HIV incidence rate ratios (RRs) were estimated with their 95% CIs.

Results 203 MSM were included with a median follow-up of 9 months. During the study period, 16 participants acquired HIV infection while not receiving tenofovir disoproxil and emtricitabin (TDF/FTC) over 212.4 person-years (PYs) of follow-up (incidence rate 7.5/100 PYs, 95% CI: 4.3 to 12.2). Being enrolled in Paris was associated with a significant increased risk of HIV infection (RR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.1 to 28.3). A high number of sexual partners in prior 2 months (≥10 vs <5) and of condomless receptive anal sex episodes in prior 12 months (>5 vs <5) were strong predictors for HIV acquisition (RR: 10.6 (2 to 260.2) and 3.3 (1.2 to 10.2), respectively). Those who reported more often or only receptive sexual practices were also at increased risk (RR: 9.8 (2.0 to 246.6)). The use of recreational drugs in prior 12 months, especially gamma hydroxybutarate/gamma butyrolactone (RR: 5.9; 95% CI: 2 to 21.7), was associated with a significantly increased risk of HIV acquisition even after adjustment for sexual practices.

Conclusions MSM who have frequent condomless receptive anal sex and multiple partners, or use recreational drugs should be targeted in priority for PrEP prescription especially if they live in an area with a high prevalence of HIV infection.

  • pre-exposure prophylaxis
  • risk factors
  • sexual behaviour
  • HIV infections

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Handling editor Henry John Christiaan de Vries

  • JG and MP contributed equally.

  • Collaborators Paris St-Louis: C Pintado, B Loze, C Delaugerre, P Charbonneau, C Gatey, D Ponscarme, P Penot, L Niedbalski, R Veron, J Delgado, E Dalle, S Parlier, I Madelaine, J Fonsart, M Danet, N Mahjoub, N Mezreb, K Moudachirou, S Morel, G Conort, F Lorho, M Meunier, W Rozenbaum, JM Molina. Paris Tenon: J Chas, C Monfort, J Foucoin, B Boissavy, S Cousseau, S Huon, M Danet, A Djessima, V Berrebi, A Adda, S le Nagat, L Zarka, J Berdougo, G Pialoux. Lyon: C Chidiac, N Mzoughi, F Clement, A Decouty, C Chapolard, M Godinot, C Adouard-groslafeige, J Koffi, A Pansu, A Becker, S Pailhes, F Bonnet, F Jeanblanc, C Brochier, X Teruin, S Rouby, L Gilly, L Cotte. Montréal: C Beauvais, P Arlotto, C Fortin, A Talbot, A Chamberland, A McKenzie, M Blanchette, R Rousseau, K Montheuth, D Thompson, M Morin, M Wainberg, C Tremblay. Nice: C Etienne, F Tolonin, S Breaud, V Péchenot, S Bagge, T Cepitelli, PM Roger, E Rosenthal, E Cua. Tourcoing: A Cheret, P Cornavin, S Vandamme, J Lambec, N Dumon, O Leclanche, T Huleux, R Biekre, O Robineau, H Melliez, H Bazus, A Pasquet. Nantes: C Bernaud, M Besnier, B Bonnet, N Hall, M Cavellec, H Hue, L Larmet, M Colas, R Choquet, F Raffi.

  • Contributors JG and MP collected clinical data. MP, GA, LM and CC performed statistical analysis. JG, MP and GA wrote the main manuscript and prepared figures. All authors reviewed the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.