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The prevalence of genital warts in the Baltic countries: findings from national cross-sectional surveys in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
  1. Anneli Uusküla1,
  2. Rainer Reile1,
  3. Dace Rezeberga2,
  4. Anda Karnite3,
  5. Zeneta Logminiene4,
  6. Žilvinas Padaiga4,
  7. Mari Nygård5
  1. 1Department of Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
  2. 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia
  3. 3Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia
  4. 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Science, Kaunas, Lithuania
  5. 5Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Montebello, Oslo, Norway
  1. Correspondence to Professor Anneli Uusküla, Department of Public Health, University of Tartu, Ravila str 19, Tartu 50411, Estonia; anneli.uuskula{at}


Objectives To assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported genital warts (GWs) among women and men aged 18–45 years in the Baltic countries.

Methods In 2011–2013 we performed a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on the history of clinically diagnosed GWs, sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviour. Probability sampling methods were used to invite 16 959 individuals representing the general population, of whom 7760 (45.8%) participated (Estonia: 1967 women, 1221 men; Latvia: 1525 women, 1525 men; Lithuania: 1522 women).

Results The estimated lifetime prevalence of clinically diagnosed GWs in women was 4.6% (95% CI 3.8 to 5.5) in Estonia, 2.9% (95% CI 2.0 to 3.6) in Latvia and 1.5% (95% CI 1.2 to 2.0) in Lithuania. Among men, the corresponding values were 2.8% (95% CI 1.9 to 4.0) in Estonia and 1.9% (95% CI 1.3 to 2.6) in Latvia. The mean age at first episode of clinically diagnosed GW was 24.6 years (95% CI 23.6 to 25.5) for women and 24.5 years (95% CI 22.9 to 26.0) for men. A lifetime history of clinically diagnosed GW was associated with a history of sexually transmitted infections other than GW (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.3 for women; AOR 5.3, 95% CI 3.0 to 9.2 for men), and a higher number (5+) of lifetime sexual partners (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 4.2 for women; AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9 for men). Men living comfortably within their household income had higher odds for GW (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.2).

Conclusions Our estimated prevalence of clinically diagnosed GWs was lower than estimates from the general population of other European countries.


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