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Exploring the costs and outcomes of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions targeting men in football club settings: preliminary cost-consequence analysis of the SPORTSMART pilot randomised controlled trial
  1. Louise J Jackson1,
  2. Tracy E Roberts1,
  3. Sebastian S Fuller2,
  4. Lorna J Sutcliffe2,
  5. John M Saunders,
  6. Andrew J Copas2,3,
  7. Catherine H Mercer3,
  8. Jackie A Cassell4,
  9. Claudia S Estcourt2
  1. 1Health Economics Unit, School of Population and Health Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Centre for Immunology & Infectious Disease: Sexual Health & HIV, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary, University of London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
  3. 3Centre for Sexual Health and HIV Research, Faculty of Population Health Sciences, University College London, London, UK
  4. 4Division of Primary Care & Public Health, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Brighton, Falmer, Brighton, UK
  1. Correspondence to Professor Tracy Roberts, Health Economics Unit, School of Health and Population Sciences, The Public Health Building, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK; t.e.roberts{at}


Background The objective of this study was to compare the costs and outcomes of two sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening interventions targeted at men in football club settings in England, including screening promoted by team captains.

Methods A comparison of costs and outcomes was undertaken alongside a pilot cluster randomised control trial involving three trial arms: (1) captain-led and poster STI screening promotion; (2) sexual health advisor-led and poster STI screening promotion and (3) poster-only STI screening promotion (control/comparator). For all study arms, resource use and cost data were collected prospectively.

Results There was considerable variation in uptake rates between clubs, but results were broadly comparable across study arms with 50% of men accepting the screening offer in the captain-led arm, 67% in the sexual health advisor-led arm and 61% in the poster-only control arm. The overall costs associated with the intervention arms were similar. The average cost per player tested was comparable, with the average cost per player tested for the captain-led promotion estimated to be £88.99 compared with £88.33 for the sexual health advisor-led promotion and £81.87 for the poster-only (control) arm.

Conclusions Costs and outcomes were similar across intervention arms. The target sample size was not achieved, and we found a greater than anticipated variability between clubs in the acceptability of screening, which limited our ability to estimate acceptability for intervention arms. Further evidence is needed about the public health benefits associated with screening interventions in non-clinical settings so that their cost-effectiveness can be fully evaluated.


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