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Epidemiology of syphilis among female sex workers and pregnant women during a period of increasing syphilis among women in Japan, 2019–2021

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  • Handling editor Anna Maria Geretti

  • AK and MO contributed equally.

  • Contributors AK, MO, TT and Y Arima designed the study. AK, MO, TT, Y Arima, TA, HI, TY and MS verified the data. AK, MO, TT, and Y Arima analysed and interpreted the data. AK and MO wrote the first draft of the manuscript. TT, Y Arima, TA, HI, TY, YO, SN, Y Akeda and MS reviewed and provided important comments on the draft manuscript. TY obtained the funding. Y Arima and MS provided administrative or material support. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

  • Funding This work was supported by grants from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan (grant no. 21HA1003).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.