Table 4

Odds ratios for selected biological and behavioural factors, in males

Prevalence of active syphilisIncidence of TPHA seroconversion
VariablesCasesControlsAdjusted OR* (95% CI)CasesControlsAdjusted OR† (95% CI)
*Odds ratio adjusted for age, community of residence, circumcision status, religion, and current marital status.
†Odds ratio adjusted for age, community of residence, education, present job, lived away from the community in past 2 years, perceived risk of STD.
‡Significance calculated with test for trend.
Number participated226493119367
Circumcision
No1873541p=0.051012621p=0.26
Yes391370.53 (0.34–0.84)181010.70 (0.37–1.32)
Sex partners ever‡
None or 114471p=0.254151p=0.9
2–4281010.86 (0.38–1.95)14530.85 (0.21–3.38)
5–9421170.88 (0.40–1.91)23660.88 (0.23–3.38)
10–1957941.21 (0.56–2.62)23850.66 (0.17–2.58)
20 or more851341.16 (0.55–2.45)551480.91 (0.24–3.52)
Sex partners in past 1 year‡
None or 1972391p=0.06451801p=0.25
2371140.81 (0.50–1.30)37961.37 (0.77–2.43)
3–453951.17 (0.75–1.84)22691.06 (0.55–2.04)
5 or more38451.81 (1.04–3.16)15211.94 (0.83–4.50)
Ever used a condom
No1883931p=0.151003031p=0.7
Yes381000.71 (0.45–1.14)19640.86 (0.45–1.67)
Perceived risk of STD
None/slight711471p=0.4321641p<0.001
Moderate922260.88 (0.58–1.33)26821.63 (0.87–3.04)
High47781.27 (0.77–2.11)49693.56 (2.00–6.33)
Don't know16420.79 (0.39–1.62)12521.09 (0.48–2.44)
Casual sex partner in past year
No1443281p=0.7531811p=0.3
Yes821651.07 (0.74–1.55)661860.76 (0.45–1.26)
Age at first sex
<15 years511281p=0.431791p=0.5
15–19 years1312821.06 (0.69–1.63)722390.88 (0.51–1.52)
20+ years24351.59 (0.80–3.13)10271.56 (0.58–4.15)