Table 1

Modes of presentation of child sexual abuse

DisclosureChild or third party
From Hobbs CJ, Hanks HG, Wynne JM. Sexual abuse the scope of the problem in child abuse and neglect. A clinician’s handbook. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1999.
Physical indicatorsVulval
    Pain/soreness
    Bleeding
    Discharge
Anal
    Bleeding
    Pain on defaecation
    Soreness/itching
Urinary, dysuria and frequency
STI
Pregnancy
Psychosomatic indicatorsRecurrent abdominal pain/migraine
Multiple vague physical complaints
Encopresis/enuresis
School refusal
Emotional and behavioural indicatorsSleeping difficulties
Learning difficulties
Behavioural changes
Eating disorders
Sexualised behaviour, promiscuity, prostitution
Depression, anxiety, self mutilation, suicide
Delinquency, criminal behaviour
Truancy, running away, drug and alcohol abuse