Table 3

Modes of transmission of STIs in young people

CT = Chlamydia trachomatis, GC = Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HIV = human immunodeficiency virus, HBV and HCV = hepatitis B and C virus, HPV = human papilloma virus, HSV = herpes simplex virus, TV = Trichomonas vaginalis.
    Intrauterine infection/ascending infectionHIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis, HPV
    Transmission via the birth canalCT, GC, TV, HSV, HPV, HBV, HCV, HIV
    Transmission via the breast milkHIV (syphilis, HBV, HCV, risk unknown)
Direct contact:
    Non-sexual/autoinoculationHPV, HSV
    Fomite transmission?TV, ?HPV
    Consensual sexual contactAll STIs
    Sexual assaultAll STIs
Injecting drug use or blood transfusion/blood productsHIV, HBV, HCV