Table 1

Summary of statistically significant (p<0.05) correlates of HBV vaccination among MSM. Part A lists factors positively correlated with vaccination, while part B lists factors negatively correlated with vaccination

A Positive correlates
Demographic variables
    Younger age11, 19
    Education (currently attending school or having a higher level of education)11, 17, 22
    Living in an urban setting2
    Professional (health related) training19
Vaccine knowledge
    Knowledge of HBV vaccine18, 19, 22
Access to health care
    Having regular source of health care22, 11
    Having health insurance22, 11
Sexual orientation
    Openness (“outness”) about one’s same sex sexual orientation with healthcare providers19, 2
    Openness (“outness”) about one’s same sex sexual orientation in general11
Behavioural correlates
    Homosexual (versus hetersexual) behaviour20
    Health promotion behaviours (ie, condom use)18
    Limited number of lifetime sexual partners2
    Never having injected drugs2
    HIV or HBV testing11, 17
Psychosocial correlates
    Attitude towards vaccination21
    Social norms surrounding vaccination21
    Perceived vulnerability to HBV infection21
B Negative correlates
Behavioural correlates
    ≥20 lifetime sexual partners2
    Injection drug use2
Psychosocial correlates
    Perceived high cost of the vaccine22
    Perception of being “low risk” for HBV22