Table 2

Details of all studies including the allocated Drummond score

Author/dateType of studyTestOutcomeCase of PID preventedSensitivity analysisScore on Drummond criteria (max 20)
*Chlamydia trachomatis
1Howell et al24 (1999)Model using real data from records and previous cohort studies Military orientedLCR urineAge based testing or universal treatment in high prevalence groups233 cases of PID prevented saving of $800/PIDYes, varied prevalence, cost, uptake and sensitivity16
High prevalence (9.2%)
2Howell et al23 (1998)Model 7 strategies to decide on test Extensive sequelae includedDNA amplification in urine or cervical swab in asymptomatic women less than 30 years.306 cases of PID prevented saving $3689/PIDYes varied prevalence, cost, uptake and sensitivity17
High prevalence (9.2%)
3Howell et al22 (1998)ModelUrine based NAAAge based screening at less than 10.2% prevalence. Universal screening over 10.2% prevalence. Both in FPC.85 cases of PID prevented saving $3585/PIDYes, varied prevalence, cost, uptake and sensitivity17
Cost effectiveness
4Paavonen et al21 (1998)ModelNAA on urineCost effective in low prevalence (3.9%) population using DNA based test assuming 90% return rate50% of sequelae prevented cost $45 per case of Ct*Yes, extensive15
Cost effectiveness
5Marazzo et al19 (1997)Cross sectional study to provide dataEIA in several settingsSelective screening in GUM. Universal screening in FPC.44 674 cases of Ct* prevented a saving of $987 per caseYes18
Both with EIA.47 025 cases prevented a saving of $667
6Genc and Mardh18 (1996)ModelNAACost effective in asymptomatic women in FPC with DNA based test at 6% prevalence, positives treated with azithromycin.NANone was performed12
Cost effectiveness Using local data.
Dubious assumptions eg 100% cures
7Sellors et al17 (1992)ModelEIASelective screening using set criteria in low prevalence populations. Effective using EIA.NAYes17
Cost effectiveness
Data collected from longitudinal study and selective criteria developed
8Buhaug et al15 (1990)ModelCultureCost effective in GP in women <24 every 2 years$1477 per case of PID preventedNo11
Cost minimisation
ExcludedCohen et al20ProspectiveNAASchool based screening was cost effective3
Cost minimisation
ExcludedHumphreys et al16Universal screening in FPC5