Table 3

Probabilities of consequences of lower tract infection used in the economic evaluations

Study IDConsequences includedProbabilities (amongst uncured Ct* infection)TestDiscountedCost effective at prevalenceCost saved
*Chlamydia trachomatis
1Howell et al24 (1999)PID30% (40% symptomatic)LCR urine3%Age based testing less than 25 if prevalence less than 9% or universal treatment in high prevalence groups$800/PID
Chronic pelvic pain18% (of PID)1 year
2Howell et al22 (1998)PID30% symptomaticComparing tests3%Yes$3689/PID
Chronic pelvic pain18% (of PID)
Ectopic7.8% (of PID)
Infertility12% (25% treated)
Urethritis40% of 68%
Neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia10% and 20% respectively
3Howell et al23 (1998)PID30% (40% symptomatic)Urine based3%Age based in FPC if less than 30 years if less than 10.2 prevalence$3585/PID
Chronic pelvic pain18% (of PID)NAA1 year for symptomatic PID
Ectopic7.8% (of PID)Cost saving as long as prevalence greater than 1.1%
Infertility12% (25% treated)
Urethritis40% of 68%Universal if prevalence greater than 10.2%
Neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia10% and 20% respectively
4Paavonen et al21 (1998)Among Ct* positivesNAA on urine4%Universal screening in FPC at 3.9% prevalence if uptake 75% using DNA based test assuming 90% return rate50% of sequelae prevented cost $45 per case Ct* detected
PID60% (20% symptomatic)3 years after PID for chronic pelvic pain
Infertility20% (of PID)5 years for ectopic
Ectopic25% (of PID)10 years for infertility
5Marazzo et al19 (1997)PID15–40%EIA in several settings5%Universal screening with EIA if prevalence greater than 3.1% in FPC$1100/PID
Chronic pelvic pain15–20% (of PID)10 years for infertility
Infertility10–20% (of PID)5 years for ectopic and chronic pelvic pain
Ectopic5–10% (of PID)
6Genc and Mardh18PIDPooled probability of consequenceNAA5–10%Universal screening cost effective in asymptomatic women at FPC with DNA based test at 6% prevalence if treated with azithromycin
(1996)Chronic pelvic pain5–10 years for all complications
Neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia
7Sellors et al17 (1992)Cervicitis20%EIA5%Selective screening using set criteria in low prevalence <7% populations with EIA effective
PID3% (of untreated Ct*)8 years
8Buhaug et al15 (1990)PIDVaried with ageCulture5%Cost effective in general practice in women less than 24 every 2 years
20% (6–44%)Time varied with age
Ectopic2.5% (of PID)
Infertility20% (of PID) (50% treated)