Table 1

Estimates of the prevalence of T vaginalis infection and proportion with symptoms

StudyYearSettingDiagnostic methodFemaleMaleMaleFemale
Drummond471936US, contacts of infected womenMicroscopy and culture0/4 (0%)
Peterson91938US, O&G clinic naval hospitalMicroscopy24.6%606/1405 (36%)
Feo101943US, army recruitsMicroscopy of urethral swabs16.6% (blacks);13/24 (54.2%)
12.0% (whites)
Whittington111951UK, birth control clinicCulture5.3%1/7 (14.3%)
Coutts et al.121955Chile, men with NGUMicroscopy68%
Whitington451957UK, contacts of infected womenMicroscopy and culture51/63 (80%)
Buxton et al.131958US, “well workers”, O&G clinic, mental institution, women's collegeCulture6.3% (married workers);
6.9% (clinic);
15% (mental institution);
0% (undergraduates).
Burch et al141959US, vaginal cytology surveyCulture60.9% (blacks)
8.1% (whites)
Weston and Nicol551963UK, contacts of infected womenMicroscopy and culture45.1%54/68 (79.4%)
Wisdom and Dunlop151965UK, STD clinic attendersUnspecified5.6% (NGU patients)31.5%5/13 (39.5%)337/513 (71.7%)
Ipsen and Feigl391970US, 38 000 “healthy workers” screened in PhiladelphiaPap smear30.4% (blacks)
10.7% (whites)
Zigas161977PNG, health clinic, STD clinic attenders and male prisonersMicroscopy10.9% (melanesian)44.6% (melanesian);
0% (white)14.2% (white).
Tapsall et al.171979Australia, antenatal and STD clinicsMicroscopy and culture0.5% (antenates);
17.8% (STD clinics).
Wilson and Ackers181980UK, STD clinicUrine culture14% (contacts of women with T vaginalis)
0% (other clinic attenders)
Mirza et al191983Nairobi, STD clinicsMicroscopy34%
Hardy et al201984US, antenatal clinicCulture34%
Mabey et al211984The Gambia, antenatal clinicMicroscopy and culture32%
Wolner-Hanssen et al221989US, STD clinicMicroscopy and culture15%
O'Farrell et al231989South Africa, rural antenatal clinicsMicroscopy and culture49.2%
Lefevre et al241991France, men with urethritisMicroscopy and culture1.8%
Saxena and Jenkins251991US, men at high risk for STDsUrine and urethral culture and microscopy58%24/49 (49%)
Iyer et al261991India, STD clinicMicroscopy15.8%
Stefanik et al271992Czechoslovakia, military personnel with urethritisCulture0.7
Krieger et al281992US, STD clinicUrethral and urine culture11%27/50 (54%)
Anosike et al291993Nigeria, university studentsUrine culture15.6%31%
DeHovitz et al661994US, inner city women recruited for health checksCulture28.7%
Cronje et al301994South Africa, random community sampleMicroscopy27.4% (rural);
29.6% (urban).
Borchardt et al311995STD clinicUrine microscopy and culture12%
Tabrizi et al321996Australia, rural and remote health clinicsPCR of tampon specimens25%
Heine et al31997US, STD clinicPCR46%
Klouman et al341997Tanzania, rural community surveyMicroscopy24.7%
Cotch et al41997US, antenatal clinicsCulture22.8% (black);
6.6% (hispanic);
6.1% (white).
Waghorn et al351998UK, cervical smear specimensMicroscopy0.1%
El Seoud et al361998Egypt, STD clinicUrine and urethral microscopy and culture8.2% (impotence and infertility)
28.8% (urethral discharge)
Sorvillo et al671998US, women attending public HIV clinicMicroscopy or Pap smear6.6% (white);
37.5% (black);
10.5% (latino).
Passey et al371998PNG, community based random clustersMicroscopy46%
Madico et al501998US, army STD clinicPCR of vaginal swabs9.4%