Table 4

Worldwide prevalence of hepatitis B, C, and D carriage33,34,79–82,87–89

Hepatitis typeWorldwide prevalenceHighest prevalence areasMajor routes of transmission in resource-poor countries
B2 billion have been infected at some time in their life. Currently 350 million chronic carriersAfrica, Asia, and South America 5–10%. China and Taiwan 10–20%Mother to infant (vertical) Child to child Sexual
C170 million carriers — 3% of the world’s population.2–5% of the population in most resource poor countries. 10% in northern China and parts of AfricaParenteral: reusable medical equipment, tattooing, traditional scarification and circumcision practices, blood products, injecting drug use
D10 million carriersMediterranean basin, Middle East, central Asia, west Africa, Amazon basin, and some Pacific Islands. New areas identified in China, Japan, northern India, and AlbaniaParenteral, injecting drug users. Horizontal, non-sexual, intrafamilial spread (exact mechanism is unknown)