Table 2

Features suggesting an aetiology of renal failure other than HIVAN

Non-black ethnicity
Nephrotoxic drugs taken recently
Recent acute sepsis, hypotension (acute tubular necrosis)
Renal colic (obstructive uropathy)
Haematuria (other types of glomerulonephritis)
Myoglobinuria, myalgia (rhabdomyolisis)
Acute sepsis/hypotension (ATN)
Haematuria/myoglobunuria (non-HIVAN glomerulonephritis)
Fragmented blood red cells/thrombocytopenia (haemolytic uraemic syndrome)
Antinuclear antibody/serum complement (lupus nephritis)
Serological tests for hepatitis B and C (membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis)
Protein electrophoresis and cryoglobulins (non-HIVAN glomerulonephritis)
Dilated urinary collecting system on ultrasound/IVU (obstructive uropathy)