Table 1

Prevalence of genital chlamydial infection in women with laparoscopically proved PID, selected studies, industrialised countries: 1980–98

PopulationCountryPrevalence % (95% CL)Sample sizeSite of specimen collectionAuthor (year) reference
STD clinicsUK40 (25–55)17/43Lower genital tractKinghorn (1986)77
Gynaecology inpatientsUK39 (29–49)40/104Lower genital tract and upper genital tractBevan (1995)9
UK43 (23–66)10/23Lower genital tract and upper genital tractStacey (1992)78
Finland30 (24–37)69/228Lower genital tractPaavonen (1980)79
Finland42 (26–59)15/36Lower genital tract and upper genital tractHeinonen (1989)80
Finland52 (29–63)16/35Lower genital tract and upper genital tractPaavonen (1987)81
Sweden33 (26–41)52/156Lower genital tractRipa (1980)82
Sweden12 (7–17)22/187Upper genital tractBrihmer (1987) 83
USA15 (9–25)13/84Upper genital tractSoper (1994)84
USA22 (19–25)129/589Lower genital tract and upper genital tractJossens (1994)76
Gynaecology outpatientsCanada16 (7–29)8/50Lower genital tract and upper genital tractBrunham (1988)7
Finland14 (5–26)7/51Upper genital tractCacciatore (1992)85
USA65 (43–84)15/23Lower genital tract and upper genital tractWølner-Hanssen (1988)8
Accident and emergencyUSA61 (39–80)14/23Upper genital tractWasserheit (1986)86
USA38 (25–52)21/55Lower genital tract and upper genital tractKiviat (1986)87
USA30 (13–53)7/23Lower genital tract and upper genital tractLivengood (1992)88
Primary careCanada25 (13–40)11/44Lower genital tract and upper genital tractSellors (1991)69