Table 2

Published prevalence of sexually transmitted disease in women in India

Prevalence ranges (%)
Study populationGCCTSyphilisChancroid (clinical diagnosis)TVHSV (clinical diagnosis)HPV (clinical diagnosis)Cervical dysplasiaHBVHIV
CT, Chlamydia trachomatis; GC, gonorrhoea; HbsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; HPV, human papilloma virus; HSV, Herpes simplex virus; PID, pelvic inflammatory disease; TV, Trichomonas vaginalis.
Community based
    Ever/currently married women20,21,55–580.0 to 4.20.5 to 28.70.2 to 8.84.3 to 27.411.83.8% grade III dysplasia
    Unmarried and married women42,59,600.3 to 3.95.20.2 to 10.50.8 to 14.04.82.0
Facility based and convenience samples
    STD clinic patients45,48,49,51,52,611.3 to 10.429.3 to 43.34.0 to 15.46.7 to 15.61.2 to 13.6
    Commercial sex workers61–634.9 to 16.530.0 to 630.549.9
    Gynaecological OPD patients64–751.0 to 5.50.2 to 31.34.4 to 5.60.4 to 26.00.3 to 25.00.6 to 42.49.2% severe dyskaryosis0.0
5.4% invasive carcinoma
    Antenatal patients44,64,76–792.31.0 to 6.217.80.1 to 1.2
    Gynaecological patients with “vaginitis” complaints80–820.0 to 2.62.6 to 12.22.21.6 to 17.6
    Gynaecological patients with “cervical erosion”83,843.01.6% moderate dysplasia
1.3% severe dysplasia
1.8% malignant
    Infertility and PID patients85–880.1 to 11.00.5 to 24.20.50.5
    Acceptors of tubal ligation88,890.1 to 2.20.0 to 0.20.5 to 7.00.9