Table 4

Association of HIV status with STI/RTI pathogens, clinical STI/RTI signs, and reported lifetime STI/RTI syndromes

STI/RTI pathogens, signs and symptomsHIV+ve (n=408)HIV−ve (n=192)OR*
No (%)No (%)(95% CI)
*OR adjusted for age and site of recruitment.
Genital swabs
N gonorrhoeae 102 (25.0%)31 (16.1%)1.33 (0.83 to 2.14)
C trachomatis 52 (12.5%)23 (12.4%)1.00 (0.56 to 1.76)
N gonorrhoeae/C trachomatis 132 (32.4%)48 (25%)1.22 (0.80 to 1.88)
T vaginalis 98 (24.0%)45 (23.5%)1.01 (0.65 to 1.57)
C albicans 245 (60.0%)119 (62.0%)0.83 (0.55 to 1.24)
Bacterial vaginosis179 (43.9%)62 (32.3%)1.65 (1.12 to 2.45)
Serology
TPPA+ve202 (49.5%)63 (32.8%)1.60 (1.09 to 2.35)
TPPA/RPR+ve (all titres)71 (17.4%)32 (16.7%)0.81 (0.49 to 1.33)
TPPA/RPR+ve (⩾1/8)35 (8.6%)17 (8.9%)0.74 (0.37 to 1.47)
HSV-2372 (91.2%)148 (77.1%)2.77 (1.62 to 4.73)
STI/RTI signs (clinically diagnosed)
Abnormal genital discharge147 (36.0%)66 (34.4%)1.26 (0.85 to 1.88)
Cervicitis84 (20.6%)29 (15.1%)1.63 (0.97 to 2.73)
Genital ulcer(s)44 (10.8%)8 (4.2%)3.54 (1.52 to 8.26)
Genital blister(s)11 (2.7%)1 (0.5%)3.70 (0.44 to 30.91)
Genital warts39 (9.6%)None
Inguinal lymphadenopathy54 (13.2%)8 (4.2%)4.66 (1.95 to 11.12)
Lower abdominal tenderness29 (7.1%)9 (4.7%)1.38 (0.59 to 3.23)
Reported lifetime STI/RTI syndrome
Ulcer84 (20.6%)22 (11.5%)2.31 (1.34 to 3.98)
Discharge109 (26.7%)32 (16.7%)1.85 (1.16 to 2.96)