Table 3

Summary of HIV and STI results in the three east African STI randomised community trials (differences in risk ratios (Rakai), rate ratios (Masaka) or relative risks (Mwanza) between intervention and comparison groups at follow up)

Rakai (mass STI treatment)Masaka A (IEC alone)Masaka B (IEC plus syndromic management)Mwanza (syndromic management)
Keys: ↔ = no change; ↓ = reduction; NA = not available; NS = not significant
R2, R3 = round (of mass treatment) number 2 and number 3.
*High titre syphilis defined as TPHA+/RPR titre ⩾1:8 in Mwanza and Masaka, and TPHA+/TRUST titre ⩾1:4 in Rakai.
TPHA = Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay; RPR = rapid plasma reagin; TRUST = toluidine red unheated serum test.
HIV serology (incidence)↓ 38%
Syphilis serology↓ 35% at R2 (NS)↓ 48%↓ 31% (NS)
(TPHA+) (incidence)↔ at R3
High titre syphilis↓ 36% at R2↓ 42%↓ 29%
serology* (prevalence)↓ 20% at R3
HSV-2 serology (incidence)NA↓ 35%NA
N gonorrhoeae (prevalence)↓ 72%
C trachomatis (prevalence)
Symptomatic male urethritis (prevalence)NANANA↓ 49% (borderline)
T vaginalis in females (prevalence)↓ 42% at R2NANA
↓ 41% at R3