Table 1

 Bivariate associations between assessed correlates and lack of recent condom use among detained adolescent males

Correlate (n)% not using condomsPR*95% CI†p Value
*Prevalence ratio.
†Confidence interval.
‡This variable served as a proxy measure of income.
§This variable (exposure to violence and crime) served as a proxy measure of risky social environments.
Demographic and history factors
16 years of age or older
    No33.31.210.86 to 1.710.26
Racial or ethnic minority
    No43.50.760.55 to 1.060.11
Ever caused a pregnancy
    No30.81.791.30 to 2.470.001
Ever had an STD
    No36.61.280.72 to 2.250.43
Personal level factors
Motivation to use condoms
    Low51.72.511.67 to 3.790.0001
Pleasure barriers to condom use
    Less22.52.261.53 to 3.330.0001
Access barriers to condom use
    Less26.91.791.25 to 2.550.001
    Low34.61.120.78 to 1.630.54
Relational level factors
Partner barriers to condom use
    Less26.51.781.24 to 2.560.001
Frequency of partner communication about sex
    Infrequent39.61.160.80 to 1.690.42
Partner uses hormonal contraceptives
    No36.80.990.61 to 1.610.99
Peer affiliations
Ever belonged to a gang
    No34.71.270.90 to 1.790.18
Most friends never use condoms
    Disagree31.01.591.10 to 2.280.015
Most friends have caused a pregnancy
    Disagree31.51.511.05 to 2.180.03
Family level factors
Residing with at least one parent
    No51.21.501.05 to 2.140.04
Frequency of discussing safer sex with parent(s)
    Low32.70.800.55 to 1.600.24
Perceived level of family support
    Low36.10.930.58 to 1.500.76
Societal level factors
Condoms are available at school clinic
    No39.41.170.80 to 1.720.42
Qualify for free or reduced price lunch at school‡
    No27.31.571.05 to 2.330.02
Witnessed extreme violence (past year)§
    Yes38.30.990.68 to 1.420.99