Table 2

 Clinical and psychosocial factors associated with sexual risk taking† in HIV positive MSM, univariate logistic regression analyses (n = 346)

p ValueOR95% CI
*Continuous variable. All others are binary except “Annual personal income” and “Proportion of HIV positive anal sex partners.”
†At least one occurrence of unprotected anal sex during the last 6 months
‡During the last 6 months
Sociodemographic factors
Age* (younger)<0.0011.071.04 to 1.10
Born outside the province of Quebec, Canada0.1371.490.88, 2.53
Language spoken at home (French v English, other)0.0910.650.40 to 1.07
Living alone0.0260.600.38 to 0.94
Education (Undergraduate or greater)0.0311.661.05 to 2.62
Main source of income‡ (full/part-time work v social security, disability, pension, other)0.0032.001.26 to 3.15
Annual personal income (÷ $1000), last year
    <201
    20–390.0152.071.15 to 3.71
    ⩾40<0.0013.061.71 to 5.47
Clinical markers and treatment experience
Year of HIV diagnosis* (more recent diagnosis)0.0131.061.01 to 1.11
Ever taken antiretrovirals (yes)0.1412.310.76 to 7.04
Presently taking antiretrovirals (yes)0.5561.200.65 to 2.20
Year first started antiretrovirals* (more recently on antiretroviral)0.0031.101.03 to 1.16
Viral load (<50/ml) on most recent test‡0.4480.830.51 to 1.34
CD4 count (⩾350) on most recent test‡0.1611.420.87 to 2.31
Protease inhibitor containing antiretroviral regimen0.0060.520.33 to 0.83
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor exclusive antiretroviral regimen0.0491.951.00 to 3.80
Adherence to antiretroviral regimen (all pills, last 7 days)0.8241.060.64 to 1.74
Number and severity of symptoms due to antiretrovirals‡*0.8711.000.98 to 1.02
Subjective experience of antiretrovirals (negative to very negative)0.1001.970.88 to 4.41
Health and wellbeing indicators
Perceived physical health‡ (good to excellent)0.9081.030.59 to 1.81
Perceived psychological health‡ (good to excellent)0.1750.710.44 to 1.16
Depressive symptoms and anxiety‡*0.1441.220.94 to 1.58
Limitations on activities daily life‡ (often to very often)0.8790.960.55 to 1.66
Perceived severity of worsening HIV disease*0.3551.170.84 to 1.62
Perceived susceptibility to worsening HIV disease*0.3160.880.68 to 1.13
Treatment related perceptions
Importance of antiretrovirals to personal health and wellbeing*0.0120.760.61 to 0.94
Treatment optimism (HIV/AIDS less frightening, controllable, almost over)*0.5991.070.82 to 1.40
HIV pos people taking antiretrovirals live longer than those who don’t*0.0601.270.99 to 1.63
Less safer sex practised by MSM because of treatment advances*0.0081.381.09 to 1.74
There is greater acceptance of HIV pos people and social integration because of treatment advances*0.9200.990.76 to 1.29
Antiretroviral treatment reduces the risk of transmitting HIV*0.2211.180.91 to 1.53
Less worry in having unprotected sex because of PEP*0.0591.350.99 to 1.83
Sexual preferences and drug use
Sexual sensation seeking*<0.0011.591.25 to 2.01
Satisfaction with sex life*‡<0.0011.511.26 to 1.81
Alcohol during sexual relations‡ (at least once)<0.0013.101.95 to 4.92
“Poppers” during sexual relations‡ (at least once)<0.0015.343.30 to 8.65
Viagra during sexual relations‡ (at least once)<0.0012.711.55 to 4.74
Cocaine during sexual relations‡ (at least once)0.0023.231.53 to 7.09
Beliefs and attitudes towards HIV prevention
Safer sex fatigue*<0.0011.911.50 to 2.42
Having unprotected receptive anal sex is less risky than having unprotected insertive anal sex*<0.0013.272.04 to 5.22
Less important to protect self/others against HIV transmission/re-infection and other STI*<0.0013.002.12 to 4.26
Less personal responsibility in preventing the spread of HIV*<0.0012.871.97 to 4.18
Less anticipated regrets if unprotected insertive anal sex with an HIV negative partner*0.0021.461.15 to 1.86
Interpersonal/contextual/social factors
Having had at least one regular sex partner‡<0.0013.652.19 to 6.09
Having had at least one casual sex partner‡<0.0015.393.09 to 9.38
Having met at least one new sexual partner in a sauna‡<0.0014.732.91 to 7.67
Proportion of HIV positive anal sex partners‡
    0%1
    <50%<0.00118.498.32 to 41.08
    ⩾50%<0.00113.106.29 to 27.25
Experience of discrimination, rejection for being HIV pos*0.7791.030.83 to 1.29
Fear of disclosure, others finding out*0.1851.140.94 to 1.38
Friends knowing about your HIV status (none to a few)0.1251.420.91 to 2.22
Having someone to confide in0.8181.100.48 to 2.52
Having someone that can help/instrumental support0.8401.080.53 to 2.17
Having someone close, affectionate/emotional support0.8191.090.54 to 2.19
Feeling isolated or alone (never or rarely)‡0.5500.950.79 to 1.13
Satisfaction with social life‡*0.0630.840.71 to 1.01