Table 1

 Summary of studies of the association of male circumcision and HSV-2 serostatus

First authorDesignLocation, date
 >of studyStudy populationStudy 
 >sizeHSV-2CircumcisedAssessment of
 > circumcisionCrude RR* 
 >(95% CI)Adjusted RR* 
 >(95% CI)Adjusted for
*Rate ratio in references 24, 26. Odds ratio in references 45, 47; Prevalence ratio in references 25, 44, 45, 46, 48.
†Circumcision before sexual debut.
‡Nested HIV incident case-control study of HIV seroconvertors and matched seronegative controls.
Auvert48Cross sectionalCarltonville, South Africa 1999Young adults aged 14–24 years67615%3%Self report1.20 (0.48 to 2.96)
Gottlieb24CohortFive cities, USA 1993–6STD clinic11209%71%†Clinical examination0.88 (0.5 to 1.4)1.0 (0.6–1.6)Age, race, city, HSV1 status, condom use with occasional partner
Gray25Nested case-controlRakai, Uganda 1994–8General67470%18%†Self report0.82 (0.68 to 0.99)0.81 (0.67 to 0.97)Age, marital status, condom use, number of lifetime partners
Kapiga47Cross sectionalMoshi, Tanzania 2000Bar workers20629%95%Clinical examination1.07 (0.40 to 2.88)0.56 (0.13 to 2.5)Age only
Lavreys43Cross sectionalMombasa, Kenya 1993–7Trucking employees11346%57%Clinical examination1.18 (0.78 to 1.79)to
Obasi44Cross sectionalMwanza, Tanzania 1992–3General13323%23%Self report0.68 (0.28 to 1.62)0.39 (0.1 to 1.52)Age, residence, mobility, marital status, lifetime partners, TPHA status
Reynolds26CohortPune, India 1993–2000STD clinic attenders229814%8%†Clinical examination0.89 (0.48 to 1.53)0.91 (0.51 to 1.64)Age, religion, education, living with family, year, marital status, number of sex partners, number of female sex worker partners, condom use, tattoos, medical injections
Suligoi46Cross sectionalGaroua, Cameroon 1997–8Outpatients8224%91%†Self report0.84 (0.24 to 2.90)
Weiss45Cross sectionalKisumu, Kenya 1997General58335%27%†Clinical examination0.65 (0.47 to 0.90)0.73 (0.47 to 1.13)Age, marital status, ethnic group and number of lifetime partners.
Weiss45Cross sectionalNdola, Zambia 1997General60736%9%†Clinical examination1.20 (0.81 to 1.77)1.04 (0.74 to 1.44)Age, marital status and number of lifetime partners.