Table 4

 Association of reproductive health factors with STI and BV/candida in a community sample of women in Goa, India

FactorPrevalence of STIAdjusted OR* (95% CI)Prevalence of BVAdjusted OR†(CI)
*Adjusted for age, literacy, number of children in the household, tapwater in the house, debt, and marital status where applicable.
†Adjusted for age, ethnicity, number of bedrooms in household marital status where applicable.
‡Among ever pregnant women only.
§Among married women only.
Ever pregnant p = 0.02p = 0.74
Yes75 (4.5%)1345 (20.5%)1
No26 (3.5%)2.71 (1.2 to 6.0)87 (11.6%)0.91 (0.5 to 1.5)
Age at first pregnancy‡ p = 0.10p = 0.50
<20 years19 (7.6%)160 (24.2%)1
20–29 years53 (4.2%)0.60 (0.3 to 1.1)258 (20.1%)0.84 (0.6 to 1.2)
30–39 years3 (2.0%)0.31 (0.1 to 1.1)27 (18.1%)0.74 (0.4 to 1.3)
Pregnancy past year‡ p = 0.41p = 0.30
No67 (4.7%)1378 (17.4%)1
Yes8 (3.3%)0.72 (0.3 to 1.6)54 (21.3%)1.21 (0.8 to 1.7)
No of pregnancies‡ p = 0.40p = 0.08
126 (3.5%)1134 (17.9%)1
236 (4.8%)1.19 (0.7 to 2.1)177 (23.3%)1.35 (1.0 to 1.8)
3+13 (7.6%)1.75 (0.8 to 3.9)34 (19.8%)1.11 (0.7 to 1.7)
Lifetime induced abortions‡ p = 0.03p = 0.47
No66 (5.1%)1274 (20.9%)1
Yes9 (2.5%)0.48 (0.2 to 1.0)71 (19.3%)0.90 (0.7 to 1.2)
Infertility in past year§ p = 0.60p = 0.63
No72 (4.7%)1316 (20.4%)1
Yes11 (7.4%)1.24 (0.6 to 2.7)27 (17.9%)0.90 (0.6 to 1.4)
Use of intrauterine contraceptive device§ p = 0.15p = 0.55
No82 (5.1%)1327 (20.1%)1
Yes1 (1.4%)0.30 (0.04 to 2.2)16 (21.9%)1.20 (0.7 to 2.1)
Sterilised§ p = 0.04p = 0.12
No51 (4.1%)1240 (18.9%)1
Yes32 (7.3%)1.71 (1.0 to 2.8)103 (23.6%)1.25 (0.9 to 1.6)
Condom use§ 0.53p = 0.02
No94 (4.2%)1325 (20.9%)1
Yes7 (4.6%)1.31 (0.6 to 3.0)18 (12.4%)0.56 (0.3 to 0.9)
Oral contraceptive use§ p = 0.16p = 0.003
No101 (4.3%)1341 (20.6%)1
Yes0 (0%)02 (4.6%)0.19 (0.1 to 0.8)
Concerns about husband’s affair§ p = 0.04p = 0.98
No79 (4.7%)1338 (20.1%)1
Yes4 (17.4%)3.97 (1.3 to 12.3)5 (20.8%)0.99 (0.4 to 2.7)
Husband away from home§p =  = 0.56p = 0.93
Never70 (4.8%)1296 (20.2%)1
Sometimes7 (5.9%)1.41 (0.6 to 3.2)25 (20.3%)1.09 (0.7 to 1.7)
All the time6 (5.2%)1.44 (0.6 to 3.5)22 (18.8%)1.01 (0.6 to 1.7)
Sex outside marriage§ p = 0.95
No83 (4.9%)341 (20.2%)1
Yes0/9 (0%)2 (18.2%)0.95 (0.2 to 4.5)