Table 1

 Epidemiological evidence for the STI prevention effectiveness of female condoms

AuthorYearStudy populationNoDesignOutcomesKey findings
Soper et al81993Gynaecology clinic patients with trichomoniasis (United States)104Prospective cohortTrichomoniasisNo compliant female condom users re-infected v 14% of women not given female condoms and 14.7% of non-compliant users (p = 0.08).
Fontanet et al91998Sex workers in commercial sex establishments (Thailand)548Randomised controlled trialChlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, genital ulcer diseaseAny STI: RR = 0.76 (95% CI: 0.50 to 1.16) Reduction in STIs in 1 of 4 sites: RR = 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25 to 0.91)
Feldblum et al112001Women in six matched community pairs (Kenya)1752Community randomised controlled trialChlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasisAny STI: OR = 1.1 (95% CI: 0.8 to 1.6)
French et al102003Women seen at STD clinic (United States)1442Randomised controlled trialChlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, syphilisAny STI, comparing female + male condoms to male condom alone: RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.59 to 1.06)