Table 1

 Characteristics of included trials

Trial location and datesPopulation*Number recruited (% female)Age of participants (years)Follow upIntervention length and formatTrial quality
Jadad scoreRecruitment rateAdherence rateFollow up rate (at end point)
*The terms used to describe sexuality and ethnic groups reflect those used in the original papers.
†Results reported for the NIMH trial relate only to those recruited from sexual health clinics. This study also recruited women from community Health Service Organisations (total n = 3706).16
Balmer, 199817 Nairobi, Kenya (trial dates not stated)Men with current STI240 (0%)Not reported6 months26×60 minutes weekly small group sessions0Not statedNot stated93% intervention
44% control
Boyer, 199724 San Francisco, USA, Jan 1992 to Jan 1993Heterosexual men and women (46% African American, 15% Hispanic) with current (39%) or previous STI (61%)399 (49%)42% <255 months4×60 minutes weekly individual sessions338%48%66% intervention
35% >2949% control
Branson, 199825 Houston, USA, March 1992 to June 1993Heterosexual men and women (90% black) with history of STI (48% current STI)964 (43%)19% <2012 months4 small group sessions in 2 weeks plus 1 at 2 months359%47%73% any, and 22% complete follow up
23% >34
Imrie, 200118 London, UK, Sept 1995 to Nov 1997Homosexual men (91% white) with acute STI and/or history of unprotected intercourse and/or concerns about sexual practices343 (0%)Median 29 (range 18–58)12 monthsOne 7 hour group workshop372%71%66% intervention
76% control
Kalichman, 199919 Atlanta, USA (trial dates not stated)African American heterosexual men117 (0%)Mean 33 (range 18–50)6 months2×180 minutes small group sessions2Approx. 70%85%69% (reportedly similar between groups)
Kamb, 199815 Five US clinics, July 1993 to Sept 1996Heterosexual men and women (32% current STI)5758 (43%)Not reported (all >14)12 months1×20 minutes and 3×60 minutes (enhanced) or 2×20 minute (brief) individual sessions243%72%66% (reportedly similar between groups)
Maher, 200320 Miami, USA, Sept 1994 to Dec 1995Black men with confirmed/probable STI581 (0%)Mean 24 (range 16–29)12 months1×60 min and 2×40–50 minutes sessions in 30 days292%46% attended ⩾2 sessionsNot applicable
Metzler, 200026 Oregon, USA (trial dates not stated)Male and female adolescents (68% white) reporting recent high-risk sexual activity339 (68%)Mean 18 (males) 17 (females)6 months5×60–90 minute individual sessions137%68% attended ⩾4 sessions53% intervention
(32% <17)39% control
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 199816 37 US clinics, Jan 1994 to Sept 1996Men and women (74% African American, 25% Hispanic) reporting recent high risk sexual activity2426† (42%)25% <2512 months7 group sessions, initially twice weekly (1×60 minutes and 6×90–120 minutes)333%63% attended ⩾6 sessions76% intervention
74% control
O’Leary, 199828 Seven US clinics (trial dates not stated)Men and women (91% Black)659 (41%)Mean 303 months7 group sessions totalling 10 hours124%Not stated70% intervention
83% control
Orr, 199621 Indiana, USA (trial dates not stated)Female adolescents (55% black) with Chlamydia trachomatis infection209 (100%)Mean 18 (range 14–19)6 months1×10–20 minutes Individual session0Not statedNot applicable54% (reportedly similar between groups)
Shain, 199922 San Antonio, USA, Jan 1993 to July 1994Heterosexual women with non-viral STI (68% Hispanic, 31% African American)617 (100%)Mean 22 (36% <19)12 months3×3–4 hour group sessions over 3 weeks265%82% attended ⩾2 sessions91% intervention
87% control
Shrier, 200123 Boston, USA, July 1996 to July 1998Young women (49% black, 18% Hispanic) with cervicitis or pelvic inflammatory disease123 (100%)Median 17.5 (range 13–22)12 months1×30 minutes individual session251%95%50% intervention
46% control
Solomon, 198927 Boston, USA, 1986 (trial dates not stated)Men and women (85% black) returning for “test of cure”182 (20%)Median 24 (range 18–73)Not statedOne group session173%Not applicableNot applicable