Table 1

 Summary of studies with significant and non-significant differences in condom use by partnership type, target group and intervention type

Intervention typeTarget populationSignificant increase? (P⩽0.05)Postintervention condom use in studies reporting a significant increase (%)
NoYesLast sex/dayConsistent useEver use
n(min–max)
*Measures defined as: “used at last sex”; “used with all clients in last day worked”; “used during every act for last day worked”; or “mean percentage use with clients in last week”.
†Studies measuring condom use outcomes in more than one population were counted as one study in the total number of studies.
‡Measure defined as: “using more frequently with marital partner”.
§Measure defined as: “proportion of sex acts in which a condom was used”.
**Measure defined as: “some use during sex in last 6 months”.
††Measures defined as: “has >1 sex partner and currently uses” or “used condom during STI treatment”.
Partnership type: commercial sex
    1. Mass media/condom social marketingTruckers10
    2. Peer or other health education for FSWs/high-risk females (may include STI testing and treatment)FSW; female bar/hotel workers in truck stops11168 to 81*56 to 95
    3. Peer or other health education for high-risk males (may include STI testing and treatment)High-risk men; male transport workers; military; FSW clients1719 to 9642 to 56
    4. VCT (may include STI testing and treatment)Adult females and males; HIV- males at STI clinic1141
TOTAL STUDIES 4 15
Partnership type: casual sex
    1. Mass media/condom social marketingUrban/periurban adult females and males0135
    2. Peer or other health education (may include STI testing and treatment)Male miners; adult females and males1225 to 48
    3. VCT (may include social marketing, peer or other health education)Adult females and males; HIV- adults20
TOTAL STUDIES 3 3
Partnership type: marital/steady/regular partner sex
    1. Condom social marketing + STI testing and treatmentMale miners0226
    2. Peer or other health education for low-risk populations (may include STI testing and treatment)Adult females and males; married rural women; HIV- married women at family planning clinic/postpartum ward125 to 6058‡
    3. Peer or other health education for high-risk populations (may include STI testing and treatment)FSW; male transport workers; female truck stop workers0333 to 88
    4. VCT (may include STI testing and treatment)TB male out-patients; HIV +/− couples; adult females and males1255 to 80§24
TOTAL STUDIES 2 9
Partnership type: adolescent and youth sex
    1. Mass media/condom social marketingFemales and males 13–24 years old0231 to 68
    2. Peer or other health educationSecondary school students; females and males 10–26 years old4645 to 7839 to 98**
    3. Peer or other health education + mass media/condom social marketingFemales and males 15–24 years old20
TOTAL STUDIES 6 8
Partnership type: combined partnership type
    1. Mass media/condom social marketing (may include STI testing and treatment)Adult females and males; Males seeking STI treatment1213 to 36††
    2. Peer or other health education (may include STI testing and treatment) (for injecting drug users includes syringe exchange and community centre)Rural adults; Health professionals; Males 15+ years old; female ANC out-patients; adult retail workers; adult females and males; women at agricultural sites; urban male slum dwellers; injecting drug users4619 to 4222 to 60
    3. Peer or other health education + contraceptive serviceFemales at postabortion services10
    4. Peer or other health education + mass media/condom social marketingSemirural adults 18–30 years old018
    5. VCT (may include ART programme, social marketing, or peer or other health education)Urban adults; HIV−/+ adults3271 to 85
TOTAL STUDIES 9 11