Table 3 Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) case group: comparison of patients seen by high diagnosing doctors and low diagnosing doctors
Patient characteristicsHigh diagnosing doctors n = 160Low diagnosing doctors n = 165Odds ratios low/high diagnosing doctorsp Value
n (%)n (%)Crude OR (95% CI)
    Age
        <25 years83 (51.9)63 (38.2)1.0
        ⩾25 years77 (48.1)102 (61.8)1.7 (1.1 to 2.8)0.013
    Male sexual partners in last 3 months
        0–2116 (72.5)108 (65.5)1.0
        ⩾344 (27.5)57 (34.5)1.4 (0.8 to 2.3)0.17
    Male sexual partners in last year
        0–394 (71.8)95 (79.8)1.0
        ⩾437 (28.2)24 (20.2)0.6 (0.3 to 1.2)0.14
    Condom use in last 3 months
        100% of the time12 (9.8)12 (10.4)1.0
        Less than 100% of the time110 (90.2)103 (89.6)0.9 (0.4 to 2.4)0.88
    Condom use in last year
        100% of the time13 (10.2)13 (11)1.0
        Less than 100% of the time115 (89.8)105 (89.0)0.9 (0.4 to 2.2)0.82
    Sex worker
        No16 (12.1)16 (13.3)1.0
        Yes116 (87.9)104 (86.7)0.9 (0.4 to 2.0)0.77
    Past PID
        No140 (87.5)138 (83.6)1.0
        Yes20 (12.5)27 (16.4)1.4 (0.7 to 2.7)0.32
Patient symptoms and signs
    Abdominal pain
        No48 (30.0)39 (23.6)1.0
        Yes112 (70.0)126 (76.4)1.4 (0.8 to 2.3)0.20
    Vaginal discharge
        No86 (53.8)94 (57.0)1.0
        Yes74 (46.3)71 (43.0)0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)0.56
    Dysuria
        No143 (89.4)147 (89.1)1.0
        Yes17 (10.6)18 (10.9)1.0 (0.5 to 2.2)0.93
    Dyspareunia
        No97 (60.6)97 (58.8)1.0
        Yes63 (39.4)68 (41.2)1.1 (0.7 to 1.7)0.74
    Fever
        No160 (100)163 (98.9)1.0
        Yes0 (0)2 (1.2)*0.16
    Inter-menstrual bleeding
        No136 (85.0)135 (81.8)1.0
        Yes24 (15.0)30 (18.2)1.3 (0.7 to 2.4)0.44
    Post-coital bleeding
         No136 (85.0)145 (87.9)1.0
        Yes24 (15.0)20 (12.1)0.8 (0.4 to 1.6)0.45
    Cervical motion tenderness
        No110 (68.8)113 (68.5)1.0
        Yes50 (31.3)52 (31.5)1.0 (0.6 to 1.7)0.96
    Uterine tenderness
        No99 (61.9)103 (62.4)1.0
        Yes61 (38.1)62 (37.6)1.0 (0.6 to 1.6)0.91
    Unilateral adnexal tenderness
        No118 (73.8)124 (75.2)1.0
        Yes42 (26.3)41 (24.8)0.9 (0.5 to 1.6)0.77
    Bilateral adnexal tenderness
        No119 (74.4)109 (66.1)1.0
        Yes41 (25.6)56 (33.9)1.5 (0.9 to 2.5)0.10
    Cervicitis
        No115 (71.9)121 (73.3)1.0
        Yes45 (28.1)44 (26.7)0.9 (0.6 to 1.6)0.77
Investigation results
    Cervical PMN count
        <5 per HPF33 (28.0)29 (22.1)1.0
        >4 per HPF85 (72.0)102 (77.9)1.4 (0.7 to 2.5)0.29
    Vaginal PMN count
        <5 per HPF56 (37.0)69 (37.0)1.0
        >4 per HPF95 (62.9)117 (62.9)1.0 (0.62 to 1.6)0.99
    Chlamydia testing
        Negative123 (78.3)133 (82.6)1.0
        Positive34 (21.7)28 (17.4)0.8 (0.4 to 1.4)0.34
    Bacterial vaginosis
        Negative37 (26.4)40 (28.2)1.0
        Positive103 (73.6)102 (71.8)0.9 (0.5 to 1.6)0.74
    Meeting CDC criteria4
        No77 (48.1)62 (37.6)1.0
        Yes83 (51.9)103 (62.4)1.5 (0.97 to 2.5)0.05
  • *Cannot be calculated due to zero value; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; HPF, per high power field; PMN, polymorphonuclear cells.