Table 2 Characteristic-specific prevalence of HPV infection and bivariate prevalence ratios for HPV infection (vs no infection) and infection with multiple (vs single) HPV types
CharacteristicAll menHPV positive men
No.% HPV positiveBivariate PR (95% CI)No.% infected with multiple HPV typesBivariate PR (95% CI)
HIV status
    Positive6473.41.41 (1.16, 1.71)4783.01.22 (1.03, 1.44)
    Negative18652.2Referent9768.0Referent
Age in years
    18–203661.10.95 (0.70, 1.29)2281.81.07 (0.84, 1.36)
    21–256764.2Referent4376.7Referent
    26–305162.80.98 (0.73, 1.31)3271.90.94 (0.72, 1.22)
    31–404344.20.69 (0.48, 1.00)1968.40.89 (0.64, 1.24)
    >405253.90.84 (0.61, 1.15)2864.30.84 (0.61, 1.15)
Marital status
    Single7259.71.07 (0.84, 1.35)4381.41.16 (0.95, 1.42)
    Married17356.1Referent9770.1Referent
    Separated/divorced580.01.43 (0.89, 2.28)450.00.71 (0.26, 1.98)
Number of wives*
    114955.0Referent8272.0Referent
    >12462.51.14 (0.82, 1.57)1560.00.83 (0.53, 1.31)
Number of months per year living with wife/regular partner
    1–54557.81.04 (0.77, 1.39)2669.20.98 (0.74, 1.31)
    6–105164.71.16 (0.89, 1.51)3378.81.12 (0.89, 1.40)
    11–1214055.7Referent7870.5Referent
Number of times travelled and spent away from the current house in the last month
    09456.4Referent5367.9Referent
    17554.70.97 (0.75, 1.26)4173.21.08 (0.82, 1.41)
    >18161.71.09 (0.86, 1.39)5078.01.15 (0.91, 1.45)
Number of sexual acts during the last travel
    None13058.5Referent7677.6Referent
    At least once2657.70.99 (0.67, 1.44)1566.70.86 (0.58, 1.28)
Last two sexual partners
    Only wife/regular partner6761.21.09 (0.86, 1.39)4173.21.02 (0.83, 1.26)
    Other partners† in at least one occasion15056.0Referent8471.4Referent
Condom use in the last two sexual acts
    At least once5863.81.14 (0.91, 1.43)3775.71.07 (0.86, 1.34)
    None15756.1Referent8870.4Referent
Washed genitals after sex in the last two sexual acts
    At least once3658.31.01 (0.75, 1.36)2181.01.15 (0.90, 1.48)
    None18057.8Referent10470.2Referent
Likelihood of last two sexual partners having an STI
    Very unlikely or unlikely15658.3Referent9169.2Referent
    Likely to certain6155.70.96 (0.77, 1.19)3479.41.15 (0.93, 1.41)
Circumcised
    Yes1844.40.76 (0.42, 1.36)887.51.21 (0.89, 1.65)
    No23258.6Referent13672.1Referent
Currently infected with an STI
    Yes15759.21.08 (0.88, 1.33)9374.21.05 (0.83, 1.33)
    No9354.8Referent5170.6Referent
Geographic location
    Region 15259.61.05 (0.75, 1.48)3183.91.27 (0.98, 1.66)
    Region 25253.90.95 (0.70, 1.29)2878.61.19 (0.93, 1.54)
    Region 36756.7Referent3865.8Referent
    Region 43250.00.88 (0.56, 1.38)1662.50.95 (0.67, 1.35)
    Region 54766.01.16 (0.82, 1.66)3171.01.08 (0.80, 1.46)
  • *Among married men; †includes casual partners and commercial sex workers; ‡includes chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2;

  • ¶ Region 1: Ogenya, Nduru, Nyamware and Dunga; Region 2: Paga, Mawembe, Ogal, and Kaloka; Region 3: Nanga, Othany, Bao, and Asat; Region 4: Kianjo, Kagwel, and Kobudho; Region 5: Kosimbo, Arongo, and Nyamaruaka.

  • HPV, human papillomavirus; PR, prevalence ratio; STI, sexually transmitted infection.