Table 2 Different types and sources of HIV stigma
Types of stigma
    DiscriminationEnacted stigma; what people do to unfairly disadvantage known or suspected HIV positive persons, such as exclusion from shared activities
    Anticipated stigmaThe stigma people expect from others if they were known to be HIV positive
    Self-stigmaInternalised feelings of shame or blame derived from accepting stigmatising judgements of one’s identity
Secondary stigmaStigma which, by association, affects those related to the infected
    Sources of stigma
    BurdenStigma derived from the inability of individuals to conduct productive activities and look after themselves, leading them to be perceived as a “drain of resources”
    FearStigma derived from the fear of being infected by HIV through casual or sexual contact
    BlameStigma derived from the association of HIV with negatively defined behaviours or groups in society, which are subsequently blamed for their infection
  • Source: Based on Deacon H (2005) Understanding HIV/AIDS stigma. A theoretical and methodological analysis. Research Monograph. London: HSRC Press, 2005.