Table 2 Predicted HIV prevalence among the non-respondents and adjusted HIV prevalence estimate for all eligible males and females, DHS/AIS countries with linked HIV testing data, 2003–6
CountryObserved HIV prevalence among tested respondentsPredicted HIV prevalence among non-tested respondentsAdjusted prevalence among all eligible respondents
Interview statusReason not testedTotal non-tested
InterviewedNot interviewedRefusedAbsentOther/ missing
Burkina Faso 2003
Male (15–59)1.942.682.482.912.522.112.57*2.02
Female (15–49)1.833.562.303.712.352.783.15*1.94
Cambodia 2005
Male (15–49)0.621.070.791.090.820.380.880.64
Female (15–49)0.611.490.611.410.540.531.020.63
Cameroon 2004
Male (15–59)3.915.175.105.445.003.715.13*4.04
Female (15–49)6.758.738.248.728.877.128.51*6.90
Cote d’Ivoire 2005
Male (15–49)2.863.393.213.223.482.293.292.98
Female (15–49)6.406.897.737.157.936.057.29*6.64
Ethiopia 2005
Male (15–59)0.921.441.231.441.300.871.34*0.99
Female (15–49)1.863.463.233.504.071.623.39*2.06
Ghana 2003
Male (15–59)1.662.141.622.271.502.401.981.72
Female (15–49)2.702.972.463.102.402.562.772.70
India 2005–6
Male (15–54)0.350.440.530.440.510.580.50*0.38
Female (15–49)*0.23
Kenya 2003
Male (15–54)4.714.475.814.835.544.285.114.81
Female (15–49)8.706.829.*8.45
Lesotho 2004
Male (15–59)18.9419.1219.1818.9418.3220.6619.1519.01
Female (15–49)26.3725.1724.5425.7023.8023.7225.0026.09
Malawi 2004
Male (15–54)10.239.5311.379.4412.749.3110.2010.22
Female (15–49)13.3212.1412.6812.0213.0113.2812.2412.99
Rwanda 2005
Male (15–59)*2.28
Female (15–49)3.615.743.845.214.534.754.643.64
Uganda 2004–5
Male (15–59)5.153.884.523.874.415.164.28*5.03
Female (15–59)*7.22
Tanzania 2003
Male (15–49)6.266.847.386.997.375.457.04*6.44
Female (15–49)7.708.407.208.367.296.948.117.77
Zimbabwe 2005–6
Male (15–54)14.7515.2817.3815.7916.6719.0516.35*15.28
Female (15–49)21.1219.9021.3820.0621.4820.7120.5120.97
  • *Significantly different from the observed prevalence at p<0.05.

  • Variables for predicting HIV prevalence in the “not interviewed, not tested” group included age, education, wealth index, residence and geographic region.

  • Additional variables for predicting HIV in the “interviewed, not tested” group included: marital status; childbirth in last five years (women only); work status; media exposure; ethnicity; religion; circumcision (men only); STI or STI symptoms in the last 12 months; alcohol use at last sex in the last 12 months; number of sex partners in the last 12 months; cigarette smoking/tobacco use; age at first sex; number of lifetime sexual partners; number of sexual partners in the last 12 months; condom use at last sex in the last 12 months; higher-risk sex (sex with a non-marital, non-cohabiting partner) in the last 12 months; knowledge of prevention methods (abstinence, being faithful and condom use); attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV). Woman’s ability to negotiate safer sex with spouse; woman’s participation in household decision-making (women only); number of medical injections in the last 12 months; duration of stay in current place of residence; number of times slept away in the last 12 months (men only); away (from usual place of residence) for more than one month in the last 12 months (men only); and previously tested for HIV. The list of additional variables used varied slightly from country to country, depending on the availability of information.