Table 5 Variables associated with current infections and HSV-2/HIV in banthas, khotki and khusra: results of multivariate analysis
+/totalOR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)p Value*
Banthas
Current infection
Demographic indicators
    Living arrangement
        Daira0/1
        Family39/2491.001.000.07
        Other7/212.51 (0.96 to 6.56)2.51 (0.96 to 6.56)
HSV-2/HIV infection
Demographic indicators
    Increasing age1.24 (1.14 to 1.35)1.24 (1.14 to 1.34)<0.001
Khotki
Current infection
Recent sexual behaviour
    Condom use during last anal sex
        No35/2541.001.000.02
        Yes7/1140.41 (0.18 to 0.95)0.38 (0.16 to 0.91)
    Years engaged in sex work
        <57/861.001.000.05
        5–915/1651.13 (0.44 to 2.88)1.67 (0.63 to 4.44)
        10+20/1172.33 (0.94 to 5.78)3.35 (1.29 to 8.72)
HSV-2 infection
Demographic indicators
    Increasing age1.25 (1.18 to 1.32)1.27 (1.19 to 1.36)<0.0001
    Family lives in same city
        Yes40/2501.001.000.03
        No12/1180.59 (0.30 to 1.18)0.39 (0.16 to 0.96)
Recent sexual behaviour
    Number of new clients in the last week
        018/461.001.00<0.0001
        1–221/1320.29 (0.14 to 0.63)0.45 (0.17 to 1.15)
        3+13/1900.11 (0.05 to 0.26)0.15 (0.06 to 0.42)
    Number of non-paying partners in last year
        011/1281.001.000.02
        122/1342.09 (0.97 to 4.51)3.50 (1.24 to 9.89)
        2+19/1062.32 (1.05 to 5.13)3.42 (1.19 to 9.85)
Khusra
Current infection
Demographic indicators
    City of residence
        Rawalpindi111/2541.001.00<0.001
        Abbottabad2/170.17 (0.04 to 0.77)0.08 (0.01 to 0.42)
    Other income (not sex work-related)
        No83/2161.001.000.03
        Yes27/491.97 (1.05 to 3.68)1.97 (1.05 to 3.68)
Recent sexual behaviour
    Condom use during last anal sex
        No98/2031.001.00<0.001
        Yes15/680.30 (0.16 to 0.57)0.33 (0.17 to 0.65)
Past sexual behaviour
    Age at first sex with a man
        <1214/511.001.000.03
        12–1577/1801.98 (1.00 to 3.91)2.16 (1.00 to 4.65)
        16–1717/313.21 (1.26 to 8.19)3.60 (1.24 to 10.43)
        18+5/84.40 (0.93 to 20.92)10.82 (1.11 to 105.44)
    First sex with man was forced
        No84/2191.001.000.003
        Yes29/502.22 (1.19 to 4.14)2.96 (1.44 to 6.09)
HSV-2 infection
Demographic indicators
    Increasing age1.16 (1.11 to 1.21)1.17 (1.11 to 1.23)<0.0001
Recent sexual behaviour
    Condom use during last anal sex
        No119/2031.001.000.04
        Yes24/680.39 (0.22 to 0.68)0.48 (0.25 to 0.93)
    First sex with man was forced
        No110/2191.001.000.03
        Yes32/501.76 (0.93 to 3.33)2.21 (1.03 to 4.76)
Health care and knowledge
    Ever heard of HIV or AIDS
        No99/1631.001.000.03
        Yes44/1080.44 (0.27 to 0.73)0.54 (0.30 to 0.96)
  • CI, confidence interval; HSV-2, herpes simplex virus 2; OR, odds ratio.

  • *p Value derived from likelihood ratio test.