Table 1

Sociodemographic characteristics and behaviours of MSMW and MSMO

CharacteristicTotalMSMW*MSMOp Value
% (N=357)% (N=146)% (N=211)
Cruising site where recruited:§0.031
Public park353833
Public toilet192118
Bus station181618
Hammam8212
Other including train station, cinema etc202318
Age, years (median)§(30)(33)(28)<0.001
18–19639
20–29513462
30–39274018
40–75162311
Median age at first sex with a man, years§1819170.007
Religion0.656
Hindu717270
Islam212121
Christian869
Literate: can read and write7174680.265
Marital status§<0.001
Currently married29683
Separated/divorced/widowed536
Never married (including all hijras)652991
Living arrangements<0.001
Living with male partner629
Living with wife28662
Living alone/with friend/in hotel251334
Living with guru/hijra10017
Living with family (no wife)311839
Born in Bangalore4952470.331
Ever had sex with men outside Bangalore2725280.382
Family does not know respondent has sex with men839674<0.001
Feel at risk of being infected with HIV4032460.027
Had an HIV test ever4442460.523
Self-reported sexual identity§<0.001
Hijra13022
Kothi261137
Panthi152310
Double-decker151216
Bisexual23439
No identity8116
  • * MSMW refers only to men who had sex with men and women in the past year.

  • May not add up to 100% as some respondents answered ‘other’.

  • A definition of ‘family’ was not given and may have been interpreted differently by different respondents. For example, it may include wives, but be restricted to parents for others.

  • § These variables were all included in the multivariate analysis in table 2 because significant differences in proportions were seen between MSMW and men who have sex with men only (MSMO) for they are also known to be important risk factors (or confounders) for bisexual behaviour based on the published literature. Living arrangements were not included in the final multivariate model as this variable did not remain significantly associated and widened the confidence intervals.