Table 1

Studies reporting outcome of azithromycin treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection of the urethra or endocervix

Author and year of publicationParticipantsStudy designAzithromycin doseSensitivity testing to azithromycinBacterial cure rate of evaluable participantsComments
Handsfield 19944Male and female STD clinics, USARCT versus ceftriaxone2 gNo370/374 (98.9%)Side effects reported by 35.3% (moderate 10.1%; severe 2.9%)
Khaki 20075Males STD clinic, New DelhiRCT versus ceftriaxone2 gYes22/22 (100%)Side effects <10%—all mild
Lassus 19906Male and female Helsinki University Central HospitalRCT versus doxycycline1 g
500/250/250 mg
Yes20/20 (100%)
22/22 (100%)
No side effects reported by patients
Steingrimsson 19907Males + 1 female. STD clinic ReykjavikRCT versus doxycycline1 g
500 mg×2
500/250/250 mg
Yes11/12 (91.7%)
7/8 (87.5%)
7/7 (100%)
Failure MIC 0.125 mg/l
Failure MIC 0.5 mg/l
Mild sideeffects 8.5%
Odugbemi 19938Male and female STD clinics NigeriaNon-comparative1 gNo114/120 (95%)
Inconsistency of figures in paper
Cure = clinical + bacteriological Gastrointestinal side effects 2.7%—all mild/moderate
Waugh 19939Male and female, STD clinic Leeds, UKNon-comparative1 gYes85/89 (95.5%)MIC of failures 0.25 mg/l
Steingrimsson 199410Males only. STD clinic ReykjavikRCT versus doxycycline1 gYes27/28 (96.4%)Failure MIC 0.125 mg/l
Side effects ‘negligible’
Gruber 199511Men; STD centre Rijeka, CroatiaRCT versus doxycycline1 gNo24/25 (96.0%)No details on failure. Gastrointestinal side effects 4/66 (6%)
Gruber 199712Males and females, Rijeka, CroatiaRCT versus ciprofloxacin1 gNo48/50 (96.0%)Gastrointestinal side effects 4/50 (8%)—all mild
Swanston 200113Male and female STD clinic TrinidadNon-comparative1 gYes125/127 (98.4%)Failures MIC 0.064 mg/l and 0.094 mg/l No side effects
Rustomjee 200214Symptomatic women. STD clinic Durban, S. AfricaRCT versus ciprofloxacin + doxycycline1 gNo30/31 (96.8%)One failure in dual infected patient. Side effects were ‘few and minor’
Habib 200415Male and female STD clinic Wolverhampton, UKRetrospective review1 gNot stated168/170 (98.8%)Failures: 1 ‘due to azithromycin-resistant strain’; 1 attributed to vomiting soon after 1 g dose
  • MIC, minimal inhibitory concentration; RCT, randomised control trial.