Table 2

Adjusted proportions from logistic regression testing the association between different intensities of exposure to Population Services International (PSI)/Avahan interventions in the previous 3 months and selected behaviours among men who have had commercial sex in the last 12 months*,,

Baseline (Apr 2006)Exposure at endline (Nov 2008) vs baselinePairwise comparisons within endline (Nov 2008)
None/outdoor staticIPC or mid-mediaIPC and mid-mediaNone/outdoor static vs IPC or mid-mediaNone/outdoor static vs IPC and mid-media
All areas combined (n)(2401)(722)(585)(1075)
 Consistent condom use with FSW in last 12 months (composite)§64.382.0**86.4**89.4**ns*
 Used condom last time sex with FSW89.992.694.8*96.2**ns*
Andhra Pradesh (n)(480)(163)(150)(134)
 Consistent condom use with FSW in last 12 months (composite)63.271.081.0**76.8nsns
 Used condom last time sex with FSW92.888.694.092.2nsns
Karnataka (n)(481)(155)(116)(202)
 Consistent condom use with FSW in last 12 months (composite)50.071.8**78.5**85.7**ns*
 Used condom last time sex with FSW88.387.587.691.7nsns
Tamil Nadu (N)(480)(74)(111)(288)
 Consistent condom use with FSW in last 12 months (composite)40.784.5**81.2**80.8**nsns
 Used condom last time sex with FSW74.892.1*92.6*94.3**nsns
Maharashtra (except Mumbai) (N)(480)(270)(67)(161)
 Consistent condom use with FSW in last 12 months (composite)86.396.3**94.097.0*nsns
 Used condom last time sex with FSW96.099.6100.098.1nsns
Mumbai (n)(480)(60)(141)(290)
 Consistent condom use with FSW in last 12 months (composite)70.788.393.0**96.5**ns*
 Used condom last time sex with FSW91.392.997.399.1*ns*
  • * Logistic regression models are adjusted for variables found to be significantly correlated with the outcomes of interest at the bivariate level: age, state where the study was conducted (for combined sample only), mobility, living in regional capital, duration of residence in city, marital status, socio-economic status, living arrangement, consumption of alcohol, other sexual partners in past 12 months (any other non-spousal non-commercial female partners), place where female sex workers (FSWs) are usually met, has seen condom advertisements other than those for PSI/Avahan-promoted ‘Masti’ condoms in past 6 months.

  • Exposure categories are ‘none/outdoor static’ (does not recall intervention or recalls only outdoor static media); ‘interpersonal communication (IPC) or mid-media’ (recalls either IPC or mid-media, in addition to outdoor static media); and ‘IPC and mid-media’ (recalls IPC and mid-media in addition to outdoor static media).

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001; ns, not significant.

  • § Composite measure includes only those who answered positively to: (a) used condom last time sex with FSW, (b) used condom with FSW every time in past 12 months and (c) no occasion when condom not used with FSW in past 12 months.