Table 3

Selected population characteristics and exposure to Population Services International (PSI)/Avahan intervention among men in project sites aged 18+ who have had commercial sex in the last 12 months, by survey round (unadjusted proportions and means)

Baseline Apr 2006Round 2 Dec 2006Round 3 May 2007Round 4 Feb 2008Endline Nov 2008Sig*
Response rate†
 Number of men approached1249012272176282076120850
 Number consenting to interview97862949637469856437
 Number eligible24011856179918492627
 Number completed full questionnaire (n)24011756174117792382
Response rate (%)24.559.527.325.437.0
Mean age (years)29.629.329.229.730.7p<0.001
Duration of residence in city of interview%%%%%
 Since birth66.857.356.853.153.1p<0.001
 2 years+ but not since birth19.823.929.930.525.9
 Less than 2 years/doesn't live in city13.418.813.416.421.1
 Mean no of days spent in city of interview in last month27.226.427.626.726.1p<0.001
Marital status%%%%%
 Married, not living with wife13.28.510.813.214.6
 Married and living with wife52.
Sexual partners in the past 12 months (in addition to FSW)‡%%%%%
Mean number of visits to FSW in the last 30 days---6.45.2NA
Living arrangement%%%%%
 Living alone/with friends17.419.<0.001
 Living with family82.680.882.073.878.5
Highest level of education attained%%%%%
 Up to 9 years (primary)43.233.442.546.036.5
 Secondary school or higher47.957.652.445.354.8
 Unskilled worker16.824.324.824.923.7p<0.001
 Skilled worker41.931.837.039.033.4
 Petty trader27.823.323.124.224.3
Alcohol consumption%%%%%
 Once a week or more48.834.552.847.545.9p<0.001
 At least once a month24.628.623.625.622.5
 Less often/never26.737.023.627.031.6
Place where usually meet FSW%%%%%
 At their home22.818.313.318.222.5
 Bus stand/railway station25.031.333.027.122.7
Exposure to project in last 3 months by type of communication channels%%%%%
 Static outdoor¶-71.069.363.092.0
Level of exposure to project in last 3 months (recall of communication channels)%%%%%
 Does not recall intervention or recalls only outdoor static media-**
 Recalls IPC or mid-media in addition to outdoor static-34.624.616.724.6
 Recalls IPC and mid-media in addition to outdoor static-34.346.364.245.1
  • FSW, female sex worker; IPC, interpersonal communication.

  • * For continuous variables ‘age’ and ‘mobility’, the significance of the F-statistic is shown; for all other variables, the significance of the χ2 is shown.

  • Response rate is calculated as the number of men who completed the full questionnaire divided by the number of consenting men multiplied by 100.

  • The first three rounds did not ask about ‘wife’ as a sexual partner.

  • § Includes transgender partners and men.

  • Exposure to outdoor media in the final round was measured for the last 6 months.

  • ** Exposure categories are not compared over time because the precise mix of programme components differed slightly between rounds.