Table 3

Risk factors associated with having antibodies to HIV, T pallidum, infection with C trachomatis or N gonorrhoea among indoor-working sex workers in London

STI/HIV infectionUnadjusted modelAdjusted modelp Value
n*/n%OR95% CIOR95% CI
Demographic indicators
Migrant status
 Eastern Europe18/14112.8%2.10.81 to 5.562.10.61 to 7.010.24
Recruitment method
 Outside of project12/1637.36%1.01.0
 Project drop-in/outreach referral§12/7116.9%31.11 to to 4.980.32
Age (years)
 23–2610/5717.5%10.41.28 to 84.612.31.44 to 105.1
 27–358/5813.8%7.80.94 to to 58.9
 36+4/606.7%3.50.38 to to 48.50.09
Organisation of sex work
Main location of sex work
 Escort5/4211.9%1.60.53 to 4.961.60.42 to 5.87
 Sauna1/185.6%0.70.08 to 5.810.40.04 to 3.61
 Bar/private/other**4/1723.5%3.71.02 to to 13.10.29
Duration in sex work
 2 years or less8/839.6%1.01.0
 3–5 years7/6610.6%1.10.38 to to 2.97
 6 years or more5/657.7%0.80.24 to 2.511.10.28 to 4.050.97
Sexual risk behaviours
10 or more clients in last 7 days
 Yes10/8611.6%1.20.45 to to 3.78
 Don't know/no response5/618.2%0.80.25 to 2.621.10.32 to 4.140.92
Currently has non-paying sex partner?
 Yes16/12812.5%2.10.881 to to 8.730.05
Used condom at last oral sex with client
 No6/4712.8%1.40.52 to 3.851.10.36 to 3.480.85
Used a condom at last vaginal sex with non-paying partner
 No15/13910.8%1.30.45 to 3.781.10.32 to 3.63
 No vaginal sex with partner in last 12 months2/219.5%1.10.20 to 6.350.70.06 to 7.010.90
No contraceptive used in last 4 weeks
 Yes23/4411.4%1.20.41 to 3.381.10.31 to 3.610.92
Use of services
Ever been visited by an outreach worker/nurse at place of work
 No17/11814.4%2.71.01 to to 10.50.02
HIV test in the last 12 months
 No17/15910.7%1.30.42 to to 5.970.38
STI screen in the past 6 months
 No8/4517.8%2.30.93 to 5.872.80.93 to 8.290.07
Registered with a GP
 No10/7213.9%1.70.71 to to 5.260.41
Adverse health outcomes
Sexual violence†† from a client in last 12 months
 Yes4/3112.9%10.43 to 4.322.10.56 to 7.800.28
Sexual violence from a non-paying partner in last 12 months
 Yes2/1414.3%1.50.32 to to 8.210.64
Alcohol audit score‡‡
 Scores <39/9010.0%1.01.0
 Scores 3+13/12110.7%1.10.44 to 2.651.10.38 to 3.120.86
Used drugs during or before sex work in last 4 weeks
 Yes5/3912.8%1.40.49 to to 3.140.93
Ever been arrested or imprisoned
 Yes6/4812.5%1.30.49 to to 7.180.27
  • * This refers to single infections or in combination.

  • Final model adjusted for age, contact with an outreach service, currently have a non-paying sex partner, recruitment location and migration status.

  • p Values derived from Wald tests.

  • § 10 people were recruited via outreach referrals.

  • This includes cold calling, field workers' personal contacts or acquaintance or social network referrals and one recruit of unknown origin.

  • ** 1=regulars, 1=‘variety’ (3=street omitted from risk factor analysis).

  • †† Sexual violence is defined as reporting one or more of the following incidences: forced to have vaginal or anal sex or oral sex, gang raped, attempted anal or vaginal sex, or touched against will.

  • ‡‡ Calculated on the basis of answers to first three questions of AUDIT questionnaire: How often do you have a drink containing alcohol? On a typical day when you are drinking, how many drinks containing alcohol do you have? How often do you have six or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion? A score of three or more suggests hazardous drinking or an active alcohol disorder.

  • GP, general practitioner; STI, sexually transmitted infection.