Table 2

Prevalence of potential harms among indoor-working sex workers and associations with migrant status

NationalityOR for EE/FSU migrants
AllUK-bornEE/FSUUnadjustedAdjusted*p Value
n/n%n%n%OR95% CIOR95% CI
Sexual risk behaviours
 10 or more clients per week98/18852.1%3342.3%6559.1%2.01.09 to 3.552.71.17 to 6.270.02
 7 or more new clients per week75/17143.9%2533.8%5051.5%2.11.12 to 3.903.21.26 to 8.190.02
 Currently has non-paying sex partner106/25341.9%4745.6%5939.3%1.30.78 to to 2.350.66
 Did not use condom the last time had vaginal sex with a client2/2520.8%21.9%00.0%
 Did not use condom the last time had oral sex with a client51/24820.6%2525.0%2617.6%0.60.34 to to 3.150.57
 Did not use condom the last time had vaginal sex with a non-paying partner156/22569.3%6467.4%9270.8%0.50.48 to 1.511.70.77 to 3.690.19
 No contraceptives used in the last 4 weeks§49/25819.0%1312.5%3623.4%2.11.07 to to 7.560.04
Use of services
 Never been visited by an outreach worker/nurse at place of sex work136/24954.6%6565.0%7147.7%0.50.29 to 0.830.40.19 to 0.810.01
 No HIV test in the last 12 months184/23578.3%6469.6%12083.9%2.281.22 to to 4.530.14
 No STI screen in the past 6 months48/26518.1%2019.1%2817.5%0.90.48 to 1.701.10.44 to 2.500.91
 Not registered with a GP83/25332.8%44.0%7952.0%26.29.19 to 74.921.16.33 to 70.1<0.001
Adverse health outcomes
 Physical violence from clients in the last 12 months63/25524.7%2625.2%3724.3%0.90.53 to 1.700.90.35 to 1.730.55
 Physical violence from non-paying partners in the last 12 months37/25414.6%1716.5%2013.2%0.80.38 to 1.560.70.28 to 1.961.45
 Sexual violence** from clients in the last 12 months38/25514.9%2322.3%159.8%0.40.19 to 0.770.30.11 to 0.890.03
 Sexual violence** from non-paying partners in the last 12 months18/2557.6%1110.7%74.6%0.40.15 to to 1.470.15
 Alcohol consumption†† audit score 3+137/23757.8%7373%6446.7%0.30.19 to 0.560.40.19 to 0.880.02
 Ever been arrested or imprisoned53/26220.2%4341.3%106.3%0.10.04 to to 0.450.00
Biological data
 Any infection (HIV, T pallidum, C trachomatis, N gonorrhoea)24/23410.3%66.5%1812.8%2.10.81 to 5.561.70.46 to 6.570.41
 HIV3/2681.1%10.9%21.2%1.30.11 to to 78.40.52
T pallidum6/2682.2%21.9%42.4%1.30.23 to to 17.70.96
C trachomatis10/2324.3%33.3%75.0%1.60.39 to to 4.30.69
N gonorrhoea5/2322.2%00.0%53.6%
 Current infection (N gonorrhoea and/or C trachomatis)15/2336.4%33.3%128.5%2.80.76 to to 7.790.58
  • * Model adjusted for age, duration of sex work, lifetime experience of drug use, recruitment location.

  • p Value derived from Wald test.

  • Excludes respondents who have not had vaginal sex with a non-paying partner in the last 12 months.

  • § Participants were asked which methods of contraceptives they had used in the last 4 weeks from a wide range of hormonal and barrier methods; multiple responses were permitted and contraceptive was the third most commonly reported response.

  • Physical violence is defined as reporting one or more of the following incidences: being robbed, hit, beaten, threatened, attacked with a weapon, kidnapped.

  • ** Sexual violence is defined as forced to have vaginal or anal sex or oral sex, gang raped, attempted anal or vaginal sex, touched against your will.

  • †† Calculated on the basis of answers to first three questions of AUDIT questionnaire: How often do you have a drink containing alcohol? On a typical day when you are drinking, how many drinks containing alcohol do you have? How often do you have six or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion? A score of three or more suggests hazardous drinking.

  • GP, general practitioner; STI, sexually transmitted infection.