Table 2

Fractions of HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis infections among infected couples originating from the husband

Number of infected couplesRatio of transmission risks (female-to-male to male-to-female)Inflation factor for excess mortality and divorce rates in concordant couples (HIV only)Risk of male-to-female transmission of STIFraction of infected couples in which the male was the first infected partner*
STIFem+ | Male −Fem − | Male +Fem + | Male +Nrqp (95% CI)f (95% CI)
HIV25121542000.25130.0% (23.2% to 36.9%)86.5% (81.5% to 91.5%)
0.50129.1% (22.5% to 35.7%)85.4% (80.0% to 90.7%)
0.75128.1% (21.7% to 34.5%)84.2% (78.5% to 89.9%)
0.251.234.0% (26.9% to 41.2%)87.0% (82.2% to 91.9%)
0.501.233.1% (26.0% to 40.2%)85.8% (80.6% to 91.0%)
0.751.232.0% (25.1% to 38.9%)84.4% (78.8% to 90.0%)
0.25246.4% (38.3% to 54.5%)88.9% (84.7% to 93.1%)
0.50245.4% (37.4% to 53.4%)87.3% (82.5% to 92.0%)
0.75244.1% (36.2% to 52.1%)85.3% (79.9% to 90.7%)
HSV-2262338870.1431.00060.7% (48.2% to 73.2%)67.3% (56.7% to 77.8%)
0.2861.00058.7% (46.2% to 71.3%)64.1% (52.6% to 75.6%)
0.5711.00053.6% (41.2% to 65.9%)56.9% (43.6% to 70.3%)
Syphilis4123190.5001.00017.9% (0.0% to 36.9%)76.9% (56.3% to 97.4%)
1.0001.00015.8% (0.0% to 32.8%)75.0% (52.8% to 97.1%)
2.0001.00012.3% (0.0% to 25.3%)72.0% (48.6% to 95.5%)
  • Number of observed concordant HIV-infected couples for HIV was multiplied by 1, 1.2 and 2, respectively, to take into account a possible, but uncertain, excess mortality among these couples compared with HIV discordant couples.

  • The parameters r and q, as well as the numbers of the three types of infected couples are inputs, while p and f are estimated using our model.

  • * Summary of results from weighted data from NFHS-3: HIV (q=1, range of f= 82.2–85.2); HIV (q=1.2, range of f=82.2–85.7); HIV (q=2, range of f=82.2–87.4).

  • HIV data from NFHS-3; HSV-2 and syphilis data from CGHR SRS health check-up; each row in the table is a separate model fit. Only the last two columns (p, f) are model outputs.

  • CGHR, Centre for Global Health Research; f, fraction of infected couples in which the male was the first infected partner; Fem − | Male +, female negative male positive; Fem + | Male −, female positive, male negative; Fem + | Male +, female positive, male positive; HSV, herpes simplex virus; N, number of infected couples; NFHS-3, National Family Health Survey-3; p, risk of male-to-female transmission of STI; q, inflation factor for excess mortality and divorce rates in concordant couples (HIV only); r, ratio of transmission risks (female-to-male to male-to-female); SRS, Sample Registration System; STI, sexually transmitted infection.