Table 5

Other health services studies

CitationAuthorDateCountryHIV prevalence (%)InterventionScaleIntegration detailCosting methodsFindings summary
W50Schackman2011USA0.6Substance abuse treatment
  • Pilot

  • 10 clinics

  • One stop

  • Same structure or same clinician

  • Economic

  • Incremental costs

  • Societal perspective

  • Median range difference between costs for integrated care and non-integrated care was $14 ($67–$76).

  • Costs for integrated care are higher at 7 sites. At the remaining 2 sites with comparison groups, costs were lower for integrated care due to fewer encounters with physicians.

W51Weaver2009USA0.6Treatment for mental health and substance abuse disorders in triply diagnosed patients
  • RCT

  • 4 hospitals

  • One stop

  • Same structure

  • Economic

  • Full costs

  • Health service perspective

Total average monthly cost of health services for the intervention group decreased from $3235 to $3052 and for the control group decreased from $3556 to $3271, but the decreases were not significant. There is not enough evidence to either limit continued exploration of integration of care for triply diagnosed patients or adopt policies to encourage it.
W52Nyamuryekung'e1997Tanzania7.9STD component integrated into HIV prevention programmes at truck stopsPilot
  • (1) One stop; in PHC building at special times

  • (2) One stop; integrated into PHC

  • (3) One stop; mobile outreach

  • Costing not clear

  • Incremental costs

  • Health service perspective

  • (1) Special times: $18.35 per client

  • (2) Integrated into PHC: $17 per client

  • (3) Mobile outreach: $17.58 per client

  • All costs adjusted to 2010 USD.

  • PHC, primary healthcare; STD; sexually transmitted disease; RCT, randomized controlled trial.