Table 2

TB studies

CitationAuthorDateCountryHIV prevalence (%)Target populationIntegration detailScaleCosting methodsUnit costs and cost-effectivenessUnit
Models
 W23Masobe1995South Africa6.10HIV-positive individualsIntegration not clear
  • Model

  • Scale not clear

  • Costing not clear

  • Full costs (assumed)

  • Health services perspective

  • (1) $42 980 118

  • (2) $24 006 909

  • (1) Do nothing cost over 8 years

  • (2) Intervention cost over 8 years

 W24Bell1999Uganda7.30HIV-positive individuals w/ pos TST
  • Integration not clear

  • (1) IPT (INH for 6 months)

  • (2) IPT (INH+RIF for 3 months)

  • (3) RIF+PZA for 2 months

  • Model

  • Scale not clear

  • Costing not clear

  • Incremental costs

  • Health services perspective

  • (1) $156

  • (2) $376

  • (3) $356

QALY saved over do-nothing
Uganda7.30HIV-positive individuals w/ pos TST
  • Integration not clear

  • (1) IPT (INH for 6 months)

  • (2) IPT (INH+RIF for 3 months)

  • (3) RIF+PZA for 2 months

  • Model

  • Scale not clear

  • Costing not clear

  • Incremental costs (assumed)

  • Societal perspective

  • (1) $17.40

  • (2) $6.95

  • (3) $5.98

Savings per person in therapy
Empirical studies
 W25Foster1997Zambia14.50Individuals presenting for CT
  • (1) Referral from CT centre

  • (2) Referral from CT centre

  • (3) Referral from STD clinic

  • (4) Occupational therapy

  • (5) Occupational therapy

  • (6) Referral from CT centre

  • Model

  • Scale not clear

  • Costing not clear

  • Incremental costs

  • Health services and patient wages

  • (1) −$25 to $34

  • (2) −$53 to −$39

  • (3) −$19 to $54

  • (4) −$30 to $23

  • (5) −$55 to −$44

  • (6) $2–$100

TB case prevented
 W26Shrestha2006Uganda6.30
  • Newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients

  • (1) IPT with TST, 6-month regimen

  • (2) IPT with TST, 9-month regimen

  • (3) IPT without TST, 6-month regimen

  • (4) IPT without TST, 9-month regimen

  • One stop

  • Same structure

  • Pilot

  • 1 clinic

  • Financial

  • Incremental costs

  • Health services perspective

  • (1) $23.62

  • (2) $61.19

  • (3) $19.68

  • (4) $46.16

HIV-positive patient
 W17Hausler2006South Africa17
  • CT, ANC, TB and STI clients

  • (1) Community health centre

  • (2) PHC clinic

  • One stop

  • Same structure

  • Pilot

  • 3 facilities costed

  • 12 facilities existing

  • Economic

  • Full costs

  • Health services perspective

  • (1) (a) $29

    • (b) $805

    • (c) $1166

  • (2) (a) $38

    • (b) $391

    • (c) $586

  • (a) Person accessing Pro TEST

  • (b) TB case prevented by ICF

  • (c) TB case prevented by IPT

 W27Shrestha2007Uganda6.30
  • Newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients

  • (1) IPT with TST

  • (2) IPT without TST

  • One stop

  • Same structure

  • Pilot

  • 2 clinics

  • Financial

  • Incremental costs

  • Health services perspective

  • (1) (a) $121.18

    • (b) $102

  • (2) (a) $159.34

    • (b) $105

  • (a) Client

  • (b) QALY gained over control

 W28Terris-Prestholt2008Zambia13.60Newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients
  • One stop

  • Same structure

  • Pilot

  • 1 clinic, 1 hospital

  • Economic

  • Full costs

  • Health services perspective (assumed)

  • (1) (a) $14

    • (b) $31

    • (c) $56

  • (2) (a) $35

    • (b) $40

    • (c) $56

  • (a) Person pre-test counselled for CT

  • (b) Person completing IPT

  • (c) Annually per client

 W29Sutton2009Cambodia0.50HIV-positive individuals
  • One stop

  • Same structure

  • Pilot

  • 4 hospitals

  • Economic

  • Full costs

  • Health services perspective

  • (a) $99.72

  • (b) $27.64

  • (c) $398.84

  • (d) $1049.47

  • (a) TB case detected by ICF

  • (b) Person completing IPT

  • (c) TB case prevented by ICF

  • (d) TB case prevented by IPT

 W19Vassall2010Ethiopia4.40TB/HIV patients
  • One stop

  • Same structure

  • Pilot

  • 3 hospitals costed

  • 9 sites existing

  • Economic

  • Full costs

  • Patient perspective

  • (a) $147/patient

  • (b) $326/patient

  • (c) $193

  • (a) Patient (TB only)

  • (b) Patient (HIV only)

  • (c) Patient (TB/HIV)

  • All costs adjusted to 2010 USD.

  • ANC, antenatal care; CT, counselling and testing; ICF, intensified case finding; IPT, isoniazid preventive therapy; STD; sexually transmitted disease; STI, sexually transmitted infection; TB, tuberculosis; TST, tuberculin skin test; w/pos TST, with positive tuberculin skin test; INH, isoniazid; PZA, pyrazinamide; RIF, rifampin.