Table 1

Characteristics of identified studies investigating the association between genital HPV infection and HIV acquisition

Study type;
first author; year;
Study settingStudy populationHPV samplingLength of follow-up (months)Number of incident HIV casesType of ratio estimateHPV prevalenceHIV incidence ratio estimates (crude) (95% CI)HIV incidence ratio estimates (adjusted) (95% CI)
nested cohort studiesGender and population typeAge (years)n
Chin-Hong et al 2009USAMen
Men who have sex with men
16 and older1409Anal swabs at baseline4851HRHPV: 56.8%3.6 (1.5 to 8.4)*3.5(1.2 to 10.6)*
Smith-McCune et al 2010ZimbabweWomen general population18–491987Cervical swabs at baseline and 12-month visit; quarterly vaginal swabs2188HRBaseline HPV: 24.5%NR1.6 (1.0 to 2.7)
Baseline HR-HPV: 16.1%NR2.0 (1.2 to 3.2)
Baseline LR-HPV: 10.8%NR1.5 (0.92 to 2.4)
Smith et al 2010KenyaMen general population18–242168Exfoliated penile cells from glans/coronal sulcus† at baseline4263HRHPV: 50.2%NR1.8 (1.1 to 2.9)
At least one HR-HPV‡: 34.8%NR1.5 (0.9 to 2.6)
Only LR-HPV‡: 15.5%NR1.9 (0.9 to 3.6)
Veldhuijzen et al 2010RwandaWomen high risk (96% sex workers)median 25324Cervical samples at month 62410ORHPV: 47.8%NRNR
HR-HPV: 33.3%4.9 (1.2 to 19.7)NR
Auvert et al 2011South AfricaWomen
High-risk (all sex workers)
median 2488first available cervico-vaginal rinses of 3 obtained during follow-up, before seroconversion30 (median)25HRHPV:NRNR
HR-HPV: 70.5%1.5 (1.1 to 2.1)§1.7 (1.0 to 2.7)§
LR-HPV: 60.2%1.1 (0.77 to 1.5)§0.95 (0.68 to 1.3)§
Case-control Study
Averbach et al 2010ZimbabweWomen general population18–35145 cases and 446 controlsCervical swabs at t−1 (t0=time of HIV detection)t0−t−1=80.5 days
145ORHPV : 49.1%2.7 (1.7 to 4.1)2.4 (1.5 to 4.0)
Any HR-HPV: 37.1%2.7 (1.7 to 4.3)2.3 (1.4 to 3.9)
Only LR-HPV: 12.0%2.5 (1.3 to 4.6)2.8 (1.3 to 5.9)
  • Bold indicates statistically significant estimates.

  • *Infection with two or more HPV genotypes.

  • †Sampling penile shaft for HR-HPV and LR-HPV.

  • ‡HPV infections with multiple HPV types were considered high risk if one or more HR-HPV type was detected. All the others were considered LR-HPV infections.

  • §Infection with one HPV genotype versus no HPV.

  • HPV, human papillomavirus; HR-HPV, high-risk HPV; IRR, incidence rate ratio; LR-HPV, low-risk HPV; NR, not reported; RCT, randomised control trial.