Table 3

Diagnoses by clinicians compared with reference standard*

InfectionsTrue positive diagnosesPer cent agreement†Bias p valueκ (± 95% CI)Interpretation of κ‡p Value
Bacterial vaginosis125
 Examining clinician9075.66<0.0010.50±0.06Good<0.001
 Non-examining clinician§6864.55<0.0010.32±0.05Poor<0.001
 Examining clinician2891.870.620.72±0.06Good<0.001
 Non-examining clinician2490.860.060.67±0.07Good<0.001
Vulvovaginal candidiasis27
 Examining clinician*
 Non-examining clinician1491.9±3.8<0.010.59±0.09Good<0.001
  • *Reference standards: BV—Gram stain from SOVS, TV—NAAT testing from SOVS and VVC—examining clinician.

  • †Per cent agreement includes true positives and true negatives.

  • ‡All κ values were significantly different than 0.

  • §Non-examining clinicians used information from SOVS and patient history to render a diagnosis.

  • BV, bacterial vaginosis; NAAT, nucleic acid amplification test; SOVS, self-obtained vaginal swabs; TV, Trichomonas vaginalis; VVC, vulvovaginal candidiasis.