Table 2

Cervical HPV infection at enrolment and associated factors among 117 sexually active subjects

No with HPV/number sexually active (%)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)
Sociodemographic factors
Age group (years)p=0.02p=0.02
 ≤164/11 (36.4)0.13 (0.03 to 0.60)0.13 (0.03 to 0.60)
 17–1826/32 (81.2)11
 19–2018/21 (85.7)1.38 (0.31 to 6.27)1.38 (0.31 to 6.27)
 21–2220/25 (80.0)0.92 (0.25 to 3.46)0.92 (0.25 to 3.46)
 23+18/28 (64.3)0.42 (0.13 to 1.35)0.42 (0.13 to 1.35)
Religionp=0.97p=0.66
 Catholic36/49 (73.5)11
 Other Christian26/ 36 (72.2)0.94 (0.36 to 2.47)0.84 (0.29 to 2.42)
 Muslim24/32 (75.0)1.08 (0.39 to 3.01)1.47 (0.49 to 4.45)
Education levelp=0.72p=0.78
 Less than primary11/14 (78.6)11
 Primary32/46 (69.6)0.62 (0.15 to 2.59)0.59 (0.13 to 2.73)
 Secondary or above43/57 (75.4)0.84 (0.20 to 3.44)0.64 (0.13 to 3.10)
Marital statusp=0.51p=0.31
 Single57/76 (75.0)11
 Married27/39 (69.2)0.75 (0.32 to 1.76)0.66 (0.20 to 2.16)
 Separated/divorced2/2 (100)
Number of children ever hadp=0.76p=0.63
 None45/62 (72.6)11
 122/31 (71.0)0.92 (0.36 to 2.40)0.71 (0.22 to 2.32)
 2 or more19/24 (79.2)1.44 (0.46 to 4.45)1.32 (0.32 to 5.41)
Behavioural factors
Lifetime partnersp=0.82p=0.70
 135/47 (74.5)11
 2–336/48 (75.0)1.03 (0.41 to 2.60)0.76 (0.27 to 2.17)
 4–515/22 (68.2)0.73 (0.24 to 2.23)0.59 (0.17 to 2.07)
Age at first sex (years)p=0.19p=0.53
 ≤1410/17 (58.8)11
 15–1635/48 (72.9)1.88 (0.59 to 5.99)1.53 (0.41 to 5.71)
 17–1831/37 (83.8)3.73 (1.02 to 13.72)2.66 (0.58 to 12.20)
 19+9/14 (64.3)1.26 (0.29 to 5.42)1.18 (0.20 to 6.97)
Time since first sex (years)p=0.40p=0.74
 ≤1 year19/29 (65.5)11
 2–3 years26/34 (76.5)1.71 (0.57 to 5.15)1.29 (0.38 to 4.41)
 4–5 years21/25 (84.0)2.76 (0.74 to 10.29)2.23 (0.49 to 10.17)
 >5 years20/29 (69.0)1.17 (0.39 to 3.51)1.27 (0.28 to 5.81)
Condom usep=0.05p=0.11
 Never53/79 (67.1)11
 Sometimes11/12 (91.7)5.40 (0.66 to 44.08)4.69 (0.54 to 40.51)
 Often/always22/26 (84.6)2.70 (0.84 to 8.64)2.64 (0.76 to 9.16)
Using hormonal contraception at screeningp=0.08p=0.17
 No52/76 (68.4)11
 Yes34/41 (82.9)2.24 (0.87 to 5.78)2.07 (0.71 to 5.97)
Clinical factors
Ectopyp=0.45p=0.33
 None64/89 (71.9)11
 <20%19/23 (82.6)1.86 (0.57 to 6.00)2.17 (0.63 to 7.52)
 20%–50%3/5 (60.0)0.59 (0.09 to 3.72)0.53 (0.08 to 3.75)
Age at menarche (years)p=0.21p=0.29
 ≤1314/24 (58.3)11
 1422/31 (71.0)1.75 (0.57 to 5.36)1.38 (0.41 to 4.70)
 1523/29 (79.3)2.74 (0.82 to 9.19)2.86 (0.77 to 10.59)
 16+27/33 (81.8)3.21 (0.97 to 10.68)2.78 (0.74 to 10.48)
Vaginal florap=0.64p=0.88
 Negative50/65 (76.9)11
 Positive (BV)22/32 (68.8)0.66 (0.26 to 1.70)0.83 (0.30 to 2.30)
 Intermediate14/20 (70.0)0.70 (0.23 to 2.14)0.75 (0.23 to 2.46)
Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeaep=0.92p=0.52
 Negative80/109 (73.4)11
 Positive6/8 (75.0)1.09 (0.21 to 5.70)1.80 (0.28 to 11.37)
Trichomonas vaginalisp=0.22p=0.76
 Negative77/102 (75.5)11
 Positive9/15 (60.0)0.49 (0.16 to 1.50)0.82 (0.22 to 2.97)
Syphilis serology*
 Negative84/114 (73.7)
 Past infection0/1 (–)
 Active infection2/2 (100)
  • *Negative defined as negative on both TPPA and RPR. Past infection defined as positive on TPPA and negative on RPR. Active infection defined as positive on both TPPA and RPR.

  • BV, bacterial vaginosis; HPV, human papillomavirus; RPR, rapid plasma reagin; TPPA, Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay.