Table 1

Baseline characteristics, risk behaviours, and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections of men and their female partners by study arm

 MenFemale partners
Intervention groupControl groupIntervention groupControl group
(n=407)(n=370)p Value(n=437)(n=394)p Value
Age, years (%)0.750.88
 15–195 (1.2)5 (1.4)50 (11.4)45 (11.4)
 20–2475 (18.4)78 (21.1)138 (31.6)131 (33.2)
 25–29118 (29.0)115 (31.1)122 (27.9)115 (29.2)
 30–34108 (26.5)88 (23.8)78 (17.8)60 (15.2)
 35–49101 (24.8)84 (22.7)49 (11.2)43 (10.9)
Marital status (%)0.470.54
 Not married1 (0.2)0 (0.0)1 (0.2)0 (0.0)
 Monogamous349 (85.7)325 (87.8)353 (80.8)325 (82.5)
 Polygynous57 (14.0)45 (12.2)83 (19.0)69 (17.5)
Religion (%)0.620.28
 Catholic256 (62.9)260 (70.3)269 (61.6)245 (62.2)
 Protestant120 (29.5)86 (23.2)122 (27.9)101 (25.6)
 Saved/Pentecostal/other28 (6.9)22 (5.9)40 (9.2)35 (8.9)
 Muslim3 (0.7)2 (0.5)6 (1.4)13 (3.3)
Education (%)0.320.57
 No education29 (7.1)36 (9.7)71 (16.2)54 (13.7)
 Primary304 (74.7)276 (74.6)317 (72.5)292 (74.1)
 Secondary or higher74 (18.2)58 (15.7)49 (11.2)48 (12.2)
Number of sexual partners past year* (%)0.210.20
 00 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (0.2)0 (0.0)
 1235 (57.7)197 (53.2)428 (97.9)380 (96.4)
 2+172 (42.3)173 (46.8)8 (1.8)14 (3.6)
Non-marital relationships in past year (%)0.770.07
 No340 (83.5)312 (84.3)435 (99.5)387 (98.2)
 Yes67 (16.5)58 (15.7)2 (0.5)7 (1.8)
Condom use in past year† (%)0.740.06
 None277 (68.1)242 (65.4)382 (88.0)323 (82.6)
 Inconsistent use126 (31.0)124 (33.5)52 (12.0)67 (17.1)
 Consistent condom use4 (1.0)4 (1.1)0 (0.0)1 (0.3)
Alcohol use with sex in past year211 (51.8)225 (60.8)0.01153 (35.0)128 (32.5)0.44
Transactional sexual intercourse in past year‡2 (0.5)2 (0.5)0.922 (0.5)2 (0.5)0.92
Prior receipt of voluntary counselling and testing79 (19.4)53 (14.3)0.0687 (19.9)68 (17.3)0.58
Self-reported symptoms of STDs in past year (%)
 Genital ulcer disease37 (9.1)35 (9.5)0.8664 (14.6)50 (12.7)0.41
 Urethral or vaginal discharge15 (3.7)21 (5.7)0.19211 (48.3)181 (45.9)0.50
 Dysuria22 (5.4)33 (8.9)0.0692 (21.1)90 (22.8)0.53
Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence§ (%)222 (50.8)218 (55.3)0.19
  • Data are n (%). The number of men is less than the number of female partners enrolled due to polygynous unions.

  • *Number of sexual partners during past year includes long-term partner.

  • †Condom use data was not available for three female partners from both the intervention arm and control arm.

  • ‡Transactional sexual intercourse was defined as sexual intercourse in exchange for money or gifts.

  • §Male HPV prevalence was not evaluated for all men.