Table 1

The characteristics of 16 studies included in the review, including key variables, HPV vaccine acceptability and the overall quality

Author (year of publication)CountryNumber of MSMStudy designSelected characteristicsKey variablesHPV vaccine acceptabilityComparative quality
Tider et al (2005)25USA1065Questionnaire at two gay community events in New YorkMean age=36 (SD=10)
65% white/European
HPV knowledge
Sexual history
NRLower
Pitts et al (2007)26Australia384Questionnaire at gay community event in MelbourneMean age=37 (range: 16–67)
58% had high education qualification
67% in full-time employment
HPV knowledge
HPV information source
HPV risk factors beliefs
Healthcare access
NRMedium
Simatherai et al (2009)27Australia200Questionnaire for gay/bisexual men at sexual health clinic in MelbourneMedian age=27 (range 19–71)Willing to pay $A450 for HPV vaccine*
HPV awareness
Sexual history
Sexual orientation disclosure
47%Lower
Reiter et al (2009)28USA312†Internet-based questionnaire for males via pre-existing panel of US householdsAge range 18–59 (4.5% 18–26)
81% non-Hispanic white
56% had high education qualification
94% living in urban area
HPV vaccine acceptability*
HPV knowledge
Concern
Perceived susceptibility
Perceived severity
Perceived vaccine effectiveness
Perceived barriers
Anticipated regret
Cue to action
Sexual history
74%Medium
Sundstrom et al (2010)‡29Sweden75†Multimodal nationwide survey of 14 000 adults recruited from the Swedish Population RegisterMean age=24 (SD=3, range 18–31)
86% born in Sweden
75% had high education qualification
55% living in rural area
Willingness to get vaccinated*
Willingness to get vaccinated at any cost*
Willingness to pay some cost of the vaccination*
HPV awareness
Perceived risk
Belief about vaccine
Sexual history
Willingness to pay for vaccine
HPV vaccine information request
Reasons to abstain from HPV vaccine
Beliefs about compensating risk
79%
7%
31%
Lower
Hernandez et al (2010)‡30USA88†Questionnaire for males at university campus and general public in Hawaii23% were under 26 years oldHPV vaccine acceptability*75%Lower
Thomas and Goldstone (2011)31USA191Telephone and face-to-face survey at practice for HPV treatment offering ‘off-label’ HPV vaccine for gay/bisexual menMean age=37 (range 22–56)
80% white
86% previously diagnosed with HPV
50% diagnosed with non-HPV STI
Paid for HPV vaccine when offered (uptake)*
HPV knowledge
HPV vaccine information source
Perceived barriers
Perceived benefits
Cue to action
Risk compensation
65%Lower
Blackwell and Eden (2011)32USA89Questionnaire at various gay pride and gay community eventsMean age=32 (SD=13)
75% white
31% married/living with partner
67% had high education qualification
HPV knowledge
HPV information source
NRMedium
Wheldon et al (2011)33USA179Internet-based questionnaire for gay/bisexual men through snowball sampling method via student organisations at 23 colleges and universities in southeast USMean age=21.6 (SD=3)
68% white
78% were in education
39% knows someone who received HPV vaccine
10% had no sexual experience
Likely to get vaccinated*
HPV vaccine intentions*
HPV knowledge
Perceived susceptibility
Perceived severity
Perceived benefits
Perceived barriers
Self-efficacy
Attitudes towards HPV vaccine
Subjective norms
Perceived behavioural control
36% Mean=4.5 (SD=1.3, range 1–7)High
Pelullo et al (2012)34Italy630†Face-to-face interview at gay community venues in NaplesMean age=26 (SD=7, range: 16–62)
90% married
89% employed
14% had high education qualification
HPV vaccine acceptability*
HPV knowledge
NRMedium
Colón-López et al (2012)‡35Puerto Rico58†Questionnaire for males and females at sexual health clinic in San JuanMean age=38 (SD=13)
68% HIV positive
HPV vaccine willingness*
HPV awareness
HPV vaccine awareness
Perceived susceptibility
21%Lower
Al-Naggar (2012)‡36Malaysia46†Questionnaire for males on university campus in Shah AlamMean age=21 (SD=2)
100% had not heard of HPV vaccine
Likelihood of getting HPV vaccine*
HPV vaccine awareness
Sexual history
0%Lower
Rank et al (2012)37Canada1169Questionnaire at various gay community events in VancouverMedian age=33
77% white
79% had high education qualification
18% HIV positive
56% have more than 5 sexual partners
26% use recreational drugs
18% diagnosed with genital warts
HPV vaccine acceptability*
HPV knowledge
Sexual orientation disclosure
67%Higher
Sanchez et al (2012)38USA116Questionnaire at sexual health clinic in New York CityMedian age=25±7.8 (range 17–62)
46% non-Hispanic white
10% diagnosed with genital warts
HPV vaccine acceptability*
HPV knowledge
Perceived risk
86%Lower
Gutierrez et al (2013)39USA41†Questionnaire of a community-based convenience sample in PhiladelphiaMedian age=18 (range 13–21)
77% African-American
HPV vaccine intentions*
HPV knowledge
Attitudes
Subjective norms
Perceived behavioural control
Mean=2.6 (SD=1.2, range 1–5)Lower
Lau et al (2013)40Hong Kong542Face-to-face questionnaire at various gay venues in Hong Kong25% were 18–25 years old
75% were 26–60 years old
Intention to uptake HPV vaccine*
Intention to pay for the vaccine*
Intention to uptake free HPV vaccine*
HPV knowledge
Perceived susceptibility
Perceived severity
Perceived benefits
Perceived barriers
Perceived self-efficacy
Cues to action
Sexual history
20%
29%
79%
Medium
  • *Reference variable for HPV vaccine acceptability/intention.

  • †Selected number of MSM subjects taken from a larger study sample.

  • ‡Additional data retrieved from the authors.

  • HPV, human papillomavirus; MSM, men who have sex with men; NR, not reported; STI, sexually transmitted infection.